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the unfolding of the story: "Yo, seror, no soy malo, aunque no me faltarian demasiado lo malo que la vida me ensef16 y mucha mi flaqueza para resistir. De —, thence. Alma, /., soul, human being, energy. Es el — del negocio, he is the soul of the business. Con toda mi — □, with all my heart.

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Llevaron a cabo iteraciones relativamente cortas, cada una juzgada por su capacidad de mejorar los indicadores sobre los consumidores. Sin embargo, como Grockit usaba un tipo de indicadores equivocado, la startup no estaba mejorando. Un experimento split-test es en el que se ofrecen diferentes versiones de un producto al mismo tiempo.

Observando los cambios en el comportamiento de los consumidores entre los dos grupos, se pueden hacer inferencias sobre el impacto de las diferentes variaciones. El split-testing a menudo revela cosas sorprendentes. Pensaron nuevas ideas para realizar experimentos de producto que pudieran tener un mayor impacto.

De hecho, muchas de estas ideas no eran nuevas. A medida que las historias pasan de un estadio a otro, se van rellenando los cubos. Pronto todo el mundo se adapta al nuevo sistema. El progreso ocurre de golpe y empieza desde el principio. Observamos este comportamiento en IMVU. Una vez vi a un joven ingeniero enfrentarse con un ejecutivo por un cambio relativamente menor. En este sistema, los consumidores no tienen que registrarse en el servicio por adelantado. Piense en eso.

El valor de las tres A Estos ejemplos de Grockit demuestran cada una de las tres A de los indicadores: accionable, accesible y auditable. En cambio, los indicadores vanidosos no consiguen cumplir este criterio. Digamos que tuvo Bien, depende. En primer lugar, hacer los informes tan simples como sea posible para que todo el mundo los entienda. Digamos que tuvimos Esto es casi un estadio entero lleno de gente que abandona el producto.

Grockit lo hizo especialmente bien. Los informes estaban disponibles en nuestra web, accesibles para cualquiera que tuviera una cuenta de empleado. A veces esto es el resultado de un deseo bien intencionado, pero fuera de lugar, de proteger la privacidad de los consumidores. Con frecuencia, no disponen de una forma para probar si los datos responden a la realidad. Debemos ser capaces de probar los datos a mano, en el caos del mundo real, hablando con los consumidores.

Entonces empieza el fotomontaje. Esto no es verdad. Sin embargo, hay buenas noticias sobre la confianza en nuestro juicio. Consiste en alinear nuestros esfuerzos con un negocio y producto que funcionen para crear valor y dirigir el crecimiento. El concepto inicial de Votizen implicaba cuatro grandes actos de fe: 1. Tres meses y 1. Era el momento de empezar a iterar. Observando los cambios en el comportamiento entre los dos grupos, se pueden realizar inferencias sobre el impacto de las diferentes variaciones.

David estaba desilusionado. Esto es lo que hacen muchos emprendedores. En Silicon Valley, llamamos a esta experiencia quedarse atascado en la tierra de los muertos vivientes. El fracaso es un prerrequisito del aprendizaje. Los resultados de Votizen estaban bien, pero no eran lo bastante buenos. Un pivote requiere que se mantenga un pie anclado en lo que se ha aprendido hasta el momento, mientras se hace un cambio fundamental en la estrategia para buscar un mayor aprendizaje validado.

El consumidor se atrae de forma digital, pero 2gov traslada el contacto digital en forma de papel. En este pivote, David hizo lo que yo llamo pivote de segmento de mercado, manteniendo la funcionalidad del producto pero cambiando el foco de audiencia. Empresa tras empresa postergaron, retrasaron y finalmente dejaron pasar la oportunidad. Recaudar dinero sin un impulso inicial genera incertidumbre. La historia de Votizen muestra algunas pautas habituales. Como suele pasar, el esfuerzo requerido para reformar un producto heredado conlleva un trabajo extra.

Cuando en las startups empieza a escasear el efectivo, pueden extender la pista de dos maneras: reduciendo costes o consiguiendo fondos adicionales. Pero cuando los emprendedores recortan los costes de forma indiscriminada, tanto pueden recortar los que permiten a la empresa entrar en su circuito de feedback de Crear-Medir- Aprender como recortar el despilfarro.

Creo que hay tres razones por las que esto ocurre. En primer lugar, los indicadores vanidosos pueden hacer que los emprendedores lleguen a falsas conclusiones y vivan en su mundo. En tercer lugar, muchos emprendedores tienen miedo. Reconocer el fracaso puede llevar a una moral peligrosamente baja. El encanto de la prensa positiva, especialmente en nuestra industria, es bastante fuerte.

Como resultado, fueron capaces de obtener un feedback temprano esencial de sus consumidores. Ellos usan rutinariamente nuevos productos de redes sociales con centenares de conexiones. David Morin resume su experiencia de este modo: Nuestro equipo y experiencia crearon una barrera de expectativas enorme. Escuchamos el feedback y seguimos innovando en las direcciones en que pensamos que podemos cambiar el significado del mundo. Y cuando necesitan pivotar no se ven limitados por el miedo.

Sin embargo, cada startup necesita encontrar su propio camino. Powers no opinaba igual. Las ideas que obtuvo son: 1. Pero, en esencia, una parte importante se mantuvo. Pero el peligro acechaba a la vuelta de la esquina.

Empezamos a creernos nuestros indicadores vanidosos. Dejamos de usar hitos de aprendizaje para evaluarnos a nosotros mismos. Crear esta nueva base ha valido la pena. Sin embargo, debido a esta gran intimidad con el consumidor, descubrimos otros problemas que son importantes y que pueden ser solucionados por nuestro equipo.

En un pivote de arquitectura del negocio, la empresa cambia de arquitectura. A menudo, los cambios en la forma de capturar valor por parte de la empresa pueden tener consecuencias de gran alcance para el resto del negocio, el producto y las estrategias de marketing. Siempre que una empresa abandona un complejo de venta anterior para «vender directamente» a sus consumidores, se produce un pivote de canal. Las empresas consolidadas destacan en este tipo de pivote porque no suponen un gran cambio.

El segmento de consumidores es el mismo, el modelo de captura del valor es el mismo y los canales de socios son los mismos. Aquello que generalmente es menos conocido son los pivotes que han sido necesarios para descubrir estas estrategias. Los pivotes son hechos permanentes de la vida de cualquier negocio en crecimiento.

En el mundo real necesita otra cosa. Ahora tenemos que aprender a competir. Sin embargo, esperar demasiado para el lanzamiento puede conducir al peor despilfarro posible: crear algo que nadie quiere. Los departamentos tradicionales crean estructuras de incentivos que mantienen a la gente centrada en la excelencia de sus especialidades: marketing, ventas, desarrollo de producto.

Las startups necesitan estructuras organizativas que puedan combatir la incertidumbre extrema, su principal enemigo. Esto es lo que crea valor para una startup. En contra de lo que se cree habitualmente, el letargo y la burocracia no son el destino inevitable de las empresas a medida que van alcanzando madurez. El crecimiento sostenible sigue uno de estos tres motores de crecimiento: remunerado, viral o pegajoso. Entonces pones los sellos».

Una cadena de montaje funciona mejor cuando lo hace sin problemas, moviendo los coches uno tras otro hasta el final de la cadena. El cable Andon puede interrumpir este flujo, ya que la cadena se detiene en repetidas ocasiones. Este proceso de identificar y solucionar los defectos ha sido un juego de todos ganan para Toyota y sus clientes. Vuelva a pensar en el ejemplo de llenar sobres. Normalmente, nuevas versiones de productos como el nuestro se lanzan al mercado en un ciclo mensual, trimestral o anual.

El trabajo que se lleva a cabo en el desarrollo de un nuevo producto tiene lugar en una cadena de montaje virtual. Para un producto como el iPhone 4, estas transferencias internas pueden ocurrir de forma mensual o trimestral. Piense de nuevo en el ejercicio de llenar sobres. Se hace de esta forma. Es como si nuestro negocio se convirtiera en un pasatiempo. Cuando nuestro sistema inmune detecta un problema, hay un conjunto de cosas que ocurren inmediatamente: 1.

Se notifica el problema a todo el equipo implicado. El equipo queda bloqueado y no puede introducirse cambio alguno, para evitar que el problema se agrave con futuros errores Hardware que se convierte en software. Muchos de sus clientes son startups. Estos datos se pueden agregar entre clases, colegios o incluso distritos. Cada estudiante trabaja por su cuenta. En otras palabras, trabaja en grandes lotes. Desde el punto de vista de la eficiencia individual, trabajar con lotes grandes tiene sentido.

Considere nuestro ejemplo. Pero recuerde los problemas que aparecen durante el ejercicio de llenar sobres. El instinto para trabajar con lotes grandes es tan fuerte que, incluso cuando funciona mal, tendemos a culparnos a nosotros mismos. Los lotes grandes suelen crecer con el tiempo. Las muestras de sangre del laboratorio del hospital a menudo se analizan en lotes de una hora.

Los flebotomistas extraen sangre de diversos pacientes y mandan las muestras al laboratorio. Pero los inventarios grandes son caros porque deben transportarse, almacenarse y revisarse. Cuando usted lleva el coche al concesionario para repararlo, se utiliza un parachoques del Camry azul de El PDC manda al concesionario un nuevo parachoques, lo que crea otro agujero en el inventario.

Es como si toda la cadena de oferta se pusiera a dieta de repente. Como la mayor parte del trabajo de las startups es intangible, esto no es visible. Cualquier otro trabajo es un despilfarro. A diferencia del negocio del hardware, los consumidores no quieren pagar un alto precio para obtener un rendimiento elevado. Ha demostrado la capacidad de desencadenar la creatividad de sus empleados, conseguir un crecimiento consistente y producir nuevos productos innovadores sin cesar a lo largo de casi un siglo.

El problema era que ninguna de las dos estaba creciendo. El motor de crecimiento es el mecanismo que usan l a s startups para alcanzar el crecimiento sostenible. Uso la palabra sostenible para excluir todas aquellas actividades puntuales que generan una oleada de consumidores pero que no tienen impacto a largo plazo, como por ejemplo un anuncio o un ardid publicitario que puede usarse para hacer despegar el crecimiento, pero que no puede sostener este crecimiento a largo plazo.

El crecimiento sostenible se caracteriza por una simple norma: «Los nuevos consumidores provienen de las acciones de los consumidores pasados». El boca a boca. Efecto secundario del uso del producto. La moda o el estatus, como los productos de lujo, proporcionan conocimiento del producto cuando se usa. Estas fuentes de crecimiento sostenible propulsan el circuito de feedback que yo he llamado motores de crecimiento. Los tres motores del crecimiento En la parte II vimos lo importante que es para las startups usar los indicadores correctos, es decir, los indicadores accionables, para evaluar su progreso.

Son simples optimizaciones. Las startups deben centrarse en los grandes experimentos que les llevan al aprendizaje validado. El esquema de los motores de crecimiento ayuda a mantenerlas centradas en los indicadores relevantes. Las dos usan exactamente el mismo motor de crecimiento a pesar de operar en sectores muy diferentes. Es lo contrario de lo que ocurre con los alimentos que hay en un pasillo de un supermercado. Desgraciadamente, este crecimiento era contrarrestado por una cantidad de deserciones equivalente.

La forma de crecer es centrarse en los consumidores existentes, de tal manera que el producto sea atractivo para ellos. Esto es distinto del simple crecimiento boca a boca discutido anteriormente. Los virus no son opcionales. No es un circuito sostenible.

Imagine que se registran un centenar de consumidores. Las empresas que venden publicidad atienden a dos tipos de clientes, consumidores y anunciantes, e intercambian un tipo diferente de divisa de valor entre ellos. Estas empresas usan un motor de crecimiento diferente. Imagine que la primera empresa utiliza Google AdWords para encontrar nuevos clientes online y de media paga 80 centavos cada vez que consigue un nuevo cliente.

La segunda empresa vende maquinaria pesada a grandes empresas. Al final terminamos haciendo un pivote de motor de crecimiento. Desgraciadamente, nuestros clientes rechazaron llevar a cabo nuestra brillante estrategia. Los clientes de IMVU no quisieron usar el producto con sus amigos previos.

Cada consumidor paga una determinada cantidad de dinero por el producto durante su «tiempo de vida» como consumidor. Sin embargo, hicieron este pivote de segmento de consumidor sin cambiar su motor de crecimiento. IMVU es un ejemplo de ello. Cuando la startup haya buscado meticulosamente un motor, puede considerar pivotar a uno de los otros. No deja lugar a dudas. Ambas asunciones son incorrectas. Por ejemplo, si una startup intenta usar el motor de crecimiento viral, puede centrar sus esfuerzos de desarrollo en elementos que afecten al comportamiento del consumidor, en el circuito viral, e ignorar aquellos que no lo hagan.

En cambio, una empresa que use el motor de crecimiento remunerado necesita desarrollar de forma urgente estas funciones de marketing y ventas. Cuando se apaga el motor Poner a punto y hacer funcionar el motor de crecimiento de una startup es bastante duro, pero la verdad es que al final todos los motores de crecimiento se quedan sin gasolina.

Esto puede tardar mucho tiempo o poco, dependiendo de la industria y del momento. Sin darse cuenta, algunas empresas desafortunadas se pierden siguiendo esta estrategia. Es el mismo problema que experimentan las empresas consolidadas. Sin embargo, en un par de ocasiones me di cuenta de que estaba fracasando en mi trabajo. No obstante, has sido trasladado a un nuevo puesto en la empresa.

De hecho, ya no se trata de la misma empresa, aunque tiene el mismo nombre y mucha de la misma gente. Para aquellos que han sido dirigidos de esta manera, los incentivos son claros. Los directivos deben tomar la responsabilidad de crear, consciente o inconscientemente, este tipo de incentivos.

Salir de esta trampa requiere un cambio de mentalidad significativo. En unas semanas, estos empleados estaban contribuyendo a un nivel elevado en los resultados de la empresa. Hasta el momento, este libro ha enfatizado la importancia de la velocidad. Los defectos pueden hacer que se tenga que repetir mucho trabajo, bajar la moral y hacer que los clientes se quejen, elementos que pueden ralentizar el progreso y gastar recursos valiosos.

Por otro lado, el circuito de feedback de Crear-Medir- Aprender es un proceso continuo. Sin embargo, a medida que nuestro aprendizaje nos permite crear productos que los consumidores quieren, nos enfrentamos a ralentizaciones. Cuando vas demasiado de prisa puedes causar problemas. A medida que estos esfuerzos preventivos generan resultados, se acelera de forma natural. El cojinete no estaba suficientemente lubricado.

El eje de la bomba estaba desgastado y suelto. Si no se sigue este procedimiento, uno puede reemplazar el fusible o el eje de la bomba. Porque ha fallado un servidor. Digamos la primera hora de un plan de ocho semanas. Esto no parece demasiado, pero es un principio. Simplemente hicimos mejoras incrementales de forma constante durante el proceso, consiguiendo beneficios.

Las dos presunciones son igualmente incorrectas. Pido a los equipos que adopten estas simples reglas: 1. Ser tolerantes con los errores la primera vez. No permitir que se cometa dos veces el mismo error. Este sistema simplificado funciona bien. Se necesita un proceso adaptativo completo como el de las cinco preguntas.

Este proceso a veces puede degenerar en las cinco culpas. Yo les advierto del peligro de intentar hacerlo sin el consentimiento previo del director o el jefe del equipo. Si hay demasiadas quejas, elija un subconjunto en el que quiera centrarse. No ponga una regla ambigua. No lo haga. Recientemente, he tenido la oportunidad de hablar con el equipo de desarrollo de producto de IGN. Estaba bastante desanimado y frustrado».

Fue un momento de pivotaje. Respuesta: Porque nadie dice que no podamos y porque es un buen momento para que el programador prepare el desarrollo que se hace el lunes. Hemos reforzado nuestro «sistema inmune conjunto». Tiene que ver con un producto que probablemente haya usado si alguna vez ha dirigido su propio negocio. Se llama QuickBooks y es uno de los principales productos de Intuit. Como resultado, tiene una base de consumidores grande y entregada, y contribuye de forma significativa al resultado final de Intuit.

Normalmente, los tres o cuatro primeros meses de cada ciclo anual se dedicaban a crear la estrategia y a planificar, sin crear nuevos elementos. En este punto, Greg estaba en un aprieto. Algo bueno de NPS es que es muy estable a lo largo del tiempo. Juntos, suprimieron los viejos procesos. Los equipos multifuncionales se creaban alrededor de nuevas grandes ideas. Pasar a una forma de trabajar multifuncional no fue sencillo. Esto permite un conjunto de experimentos mucho mayor.

Cada equipo trabaja en un nuevo elemento durante unas seis semanas y lo prueba con los consumidores reales. Este imperativo cada vez aparece antes en la vida de las empresas. Como resultado, ya no tiene sentido pensar que las startups pasan por fases discretas, como la proverbial metamorfosis de una oruga en mariposa. Yo creo que esto no es cierto.

Cada uno de estos requisitos es diferente de los que se necesitan en las divisiones de las empresas establecidas. Pero desarrollar una estructura incorrecta puede llevar a un fracaso casi seguro. A menudo adquieren un presupuesto tan grande como sea posible para preparar la defensa contra las incursiones de otros departamentos. La s startups son diferentes: un presupuesto demasiado elevado es tan perjudicial como un presupuesto demasiado bajo, tal como muchas empresas puntocom fracasadas pueden atestiguar, y las startups son extremadamente sensibles a cambios de presupuesto.

Deben ser capaces de crear y lanzar productos y servicios funcionales, no simples prototipos. Este sentimiento de propiedad no es insignificante». Creo que es necesario darle la vuelta a este modelo. Estaba equivocado. Parte de la causa de esta falta de crecimiento era la estructura de precios de ese momento. Naturalmente, se animaba a todos los comerciales a hacer que sus clientes se sintieran favorecidos. Desgraciadamente, los precios del listado publicado eran demasiado altos para el segmento de consumidores.

El grupo encargado de cobrar al segmento empresas estaba nervioso por si esto pudiera canibalizar o depreciar sus relaciones con los consumidores existentes. El sabotaje es una respuesta racional de los directivos cuyo territorio se ve amenazado.

Es una empresa consolidada que puede perder mucho. Y esto no puede tomarse a la ligera. Funciona de esta forma: 1. Un equipo debe realizar el experimento completo, de principio a fin. Este enfoque puede funcionar incluso en equipos que nunca hayan trabajado de forma multifuncional.

Usando los mismos indicadores cada vez, el equipo crea literatura sobre estos indicadores en la empresa. Este efecto es muy poderoso. Cada vez que no se pueden mover las cifras, se crea una oportunidad real para actuar inmediatamente a partir de los descubrimientos. Los especialistas funcionales, fundamentalmente los que siguen el desarrollo en cascada o el modelo etapa-puerta, se han formado para trabajar con lotes extremadamente grandes.

Esto hace que incluso las buenas ideas se queden enterradas bajo el despilfarro. Cultivar la cartera de management Hay cuatro grandes tipos de trabajo que deben gestionar las empresas. Los precios de las acciones de la empresa dependen de este tipo de crecimiento previsible. Tendemos a hablar de estas cuatro fases del negocio desde la perspectiva de las grandes empresas, en las cuales pueden representar departamentos enteros y centenares o miles de personas.

Cuando un producto llega al mercado, los equipos trabajan para avanzar a la siguiente fase. El problema tanto para las startups como para las grandes empresas es que los empleados suelen seguir los productos que desarrollan mientras van pasando de una fase a otra. Cuando los productos pasan de una etapa a otra, se entregan de un equipo a otro. De hecho, es una parte positiva del proceso que da a los innovadores la oportunidad de formar a nuevos miembros del equipo sobre el nuevo estilo de trabajo que han dirigido en la caja de arena original.

A medida que la caja de arena se expande y los ingresos de la empresa crecen como resultado de las innovaciones de la caja de arena, el ciclo debe volver a empezar. Los antiguos innovadores se convierten en los guardianes del statu quo. Cuando estas ideas no formaban parte de la cultura dominante, era simple y frustrante defenderlas.

Considerar seriamente esas sugerencias era un esfuerzo constante. En lugar de esto, fueron concebidas, incubadas y ejecutadas por empleados que aportaron su propia creatividad y talento a la tarea. Estas preguntas son sensatas. Unas veces esta tendencia es correcta; otras, no. En su lugar, queremos forzar a los equipos a trabajar de forma multifuncional para alcanzar el aprendizaje validado. Esto ocurre porque los problemas causados por el antiguo sistema tienden a ser intangibles, mientras que los problemas del nuevo sistema son demasiado tangibles.

Las expectativas se pueden establecer desde el principio. Tenemos la capacidad para crear casi cualquier cosa que podamos imaginar. Podemos ver y sentir el derroche de cosas materiales. Por un lado, suenan arcaicas. En todos los sectores, vemos una cantidad infinita de historias de grandes fracasos en el lanzamiento de productos, proyectos mal concebidos y espirales de la muerte de los grandes lotes.

Considero que este mal uso del tiempo de la gente es un despilfarro negligente y criminal de la creatividad y el potencial humanos. De hecho, como estos recursos son muy valiosos, no nos podemos permitir despilfarrarlos. Como hemos visto a lo largo de este libro, esto no es la causa del problema. Han tenido que nacer los movimientos posteriores para corregir esas deficiencias.

No tenemos una idea real sobre lo que es posible. Su coste fue asumido por la industria a partir de los beneficios inmediatos generados por la mayor productividad que permitieron alcanzar los experimentos. Usando este tipo de sistema de calibrado, podemos empezar a cambiar las condiciones de los experimentos. Mi propuesta es crear un mercado de valores a largo plazo MVLP. Intentaremos eliminar el despilfarro no para crear castillos de calidad en el cielo, sino en servicio de la agilidad y del avance de los resultados empresariales.

Responderemos a los fracasos y a los contratiempos con honestidad y aprendizaje, no con recriminaciones y culpabilidad. En lugar de esto, aceleraremos eludiendo el exceso de trabajo que no nos lleva al aprendizaje. Por encima de todo, dejaremos de despilfarrar el tiempo de la gente.

El resto depende de usted. By some strange mystery, however, it had been decreed by fate that he should only meet with disappointment in every object of his love. The city of his birth was no exception to the rule: since Becquer's death it has made but little effort to requite his deep devotion or satisfy his youthful dreams. You may wander through the city's many churches, but no tomb to the illustrious poet will you find, no monument in any square. If you will turn your steps, however, to the barrio of Seville in which the celebrated D.

It is only fair to add here that there is also an inferior street in Seville named for Becquer. Here Gustavo Adolfo Dominguez Becquer opened his eyes upon this inhospitable world. Eight days later he was baptized in the church of San Lorenzo. He died when Gustavo was but a child of five, too young to be taught the principles of his art; but he nevertheless bequeathed to him the artistic temperament that was so dominant a trait in the poet's genius.

Gustavo was but nine and a half years old at the time of his mother's death. Fortunately an old and childless uncle, D. Juan Vargas, took charge of the motherless boys until they could find homes or employment. Antonio Rodriguez Arenas Pbro. Citations from this periodical will hereafter refer to the issue of this date.

After the loss of his mother his uncle procured for him admission to the College of San Telmo, a training school for navigators, situated on the banks of the Guadalquivir in the edifice that later became the palace of the Dukes of Montpensier. This establishment had been founded in in the ancient suburb of Marruecos as a reorganization of the famous Escuela de Mareantes navigators of Triana. The Government bore the cost of maintenance and instruction of the pupils of this school, to which were admitted only poor and orphaned boys of noble extraction.

Gustavo fulfilled all these requirements. Indeed, his family, which had come to Seville at the close of the sixteenth century or at the beginning of the seventeenth century, from Flanders, was one of the most distinguished of the town. It had even counted among its illustrious members a Seville Veinticuatro, and no one who was unable to present proof of noble lineage could aspire to that distinction. Achille Fouquier , by D. Among the students of San Telmo there was one, Narciso Campillo, for whom Gustavo felt a special friendship,—a lad whose literary tastes, like his own, had developed early, and who was destined, later on, to occupy no mean position in the field of letters.

We likewise began a novel. I wonder at the confidence with which these two children, so ignorant in all respects, launched forth upon the two literary lines that require most knowledge of man, society, and life.

The time was yet to come when by dint of painful struggles and hard trials they should possess that knowledge, as difficult to gain as it is bitter! Shortly after the matriculation of young Becquer, the College of San Telmo was suppressed by royal orders, and the lad found himself in the streets. She possessed a fair library, which was put at the disposal of the boy; and here he gratified his love for reading, and perfected his literary taste.

Two works that had considerable influence upon him at this time were the Odes of Horace, translated by P. Urbano Campos, and the poems of Zorrilla. He began to write verses of his own, but these he later burned. One of these studios, situated in the same building as the Museo de Pinturas, was that of D.

Antonio Cabral Bejarano, a man not to be forgotten for his talent, and perhaps also for his wit, the delight of those who knew him. Joaquin Dominguez Becquer, a brother and disciple of D. Jose, Gustavo's father. In spite of this relationship, Gustavo Adolfo, at the age of fourteen, entered the studio of Bejarano. There he remained for two years, practicing the art of drawing, for which he had a natural talent. He then came under the instruction of his uncle, who, judging that his nephew was even better qualified for a literary than for an artistic career, advised him to follow the former, and procured for him a few Latin lessons.

Meanwhile Gustavo continued to enlarge his poetical horizon by reading from the great poets and by the contemplation of the beauties of nature. With his friend Campillo he composed the first three cantos of a poem entitled La Conquista de Sevilla , and with him he wandered about the beautiful city of his birth and dreamed such dreams as the one with which this Introduction begins.

Gustavo's godmother, who was a woman in easy circumstances and without children or near relatives, would doubtless have bequeathed to him her property had he fulfilled her wishes and settled down to an honorable mercantile life. But the child, who had learned to draw and to compose almost before he could write, and who had always paled before the simplest problem of arithmetic, could not reconcile himself to such a life.

The artist within him rebelled, and at the age of seventeen and a half, feeling the attraction of the capital strong upon him, he bade farewell to the friends of his youth and set out to seek for fame and fortune. It was in the autumn of that Becquer arrived in Madrid, "with empty pockets, but with a head full of treasures that were not, alas, to enrich him.

Charmed by its originality in form and conception, he urged his friend to publish it. The joy of this first success, and perhaps the material aid that resulted, must have had a great deal to do with Gustavo's speedy recovery.

The employment was decidedly contrary to his taste, and to amuse his tedium he used often to sketch or read from his favorite poets. One day, as he was busy sketching, the Director entered, and, seeing a group about Gustavo's chair,—for the young artist's sketches were eagerly awaited and claimed by his admiring associates,—stole up from behind and asked, "What is this? That old codger is a grave-digger. Over there It cannot be said that he received the news of his dismissal regretfully, for he had accepted the position largely to please a sympathetic friend.

Slight as was the remuneration, however, it had aided him to live; and when this resource was removed, Gustavo was again obliged to depend upon his wits. His skill with the brush served him in good stead at this time, and he earned a little money by aiding a painter who had been employed by the Marquis of Remisa to decorate his palace, but who could not do the figures in the fresco.

Gustavo is himself the author of some of the best pages contained in the volume, as, for example, those of the Introduction and of the chapters on San Juan de los Reyes. He is likewise the author of many of the excellent sketches that adorn the work, notably that of the portada. These sketches, as well as others published elsewhere, show how eminent his work as artist would have been, had he decided to cultivate that field instead of literature.

Juan de la Puerta Vizcaino y D. Gustavo Adolfo Becquer. Tomo I, Madrid, Essentially an artist in temperament, he viewed all things from the artist's standpoint. His distaste for politics was strong, and his lack of interest in political intrigues was profound. He felt at home in a complete civilization, like that of the Middle Ages, and his artisticopolitical ideas and his fear of the ignorant crowd made him regard with marked predilection all that was aristocratic and historic, without however refusing, in his quick intelligence, to recognize the wonderful character of the epoch in which he lived.

Indolent, moreover, in small things,—and for him political parties were small things,—he was always to be found in the one in which were most of his friends, and in which they talked most of pictures, poetry, cathedrals, kings, and nobles.

Incapable of hatred, he never placed his remarkable talent as a writer at the service of political animosities, however certain might have been his gains. These he would bring written on odd scraps of paper, and often upon calling cards, in his usual careless fashion.

She died in January, His friends were not slow in discovering that the tall, dark, and beautiful Julia was the object of his adoration, and they advised him to declare his love openly. But his timid and retiring nature imposed silence upon his lips, and he never spoke a word of love to her. It cannot be said, moreover, that the impression created upon the young lady by the brilliant youth was such as to inspire a return of his mute devotion. Becquer was negligent in his dress and indifferent to his personal appearance, and when Julia's friends upbraided her for her hardness of heart she would reply with some such curt and cruel epigram as this: "Perhaps he would move my heart more if he affected my stomach less.

The editor of this sketch is indebted to the courtesy of the Exc mo. Here is a list of the sketches:. A dream, or rather a nightmare, in which a man is pictured in a restless sleep, with a small devil perched upon his knees, who causes to fly as a kite above the sleeper's head a woman in graceful floating garments. A fat and jolly horned devil in the confessional box, with a confessor of the fair sex kneeling at one side, while at the extreme right two small acolytes point out to each other a suspicious looking tail that protrudes from beneath her skirts, thus stamping her as Satan's own.

Gustavo himself seated smoking, leaning back in his chair, and in the smoke that rises a series of women, some with wings. Actors standing apart in the wings. A visit to the cemetery. A skeleton thrusting out his head from his burial niche, and a young man presenting his card. Becker sic. Fantastic frontispiece of skulls, bones, and leafy fronds, and two young lovers seated, sketching. A circus of skeletons, in two scenes: 1 Leaping through the hoop. A woman recently deceased, surrounded by skeletons offering their compliments.

They are presented by one of their number, with hat in hand. The word FIN in bones concludes the series of grotesque and uncanny sketches, which but emphasize a fact ever present in the poet's mind—that while we are in life we are in death. He lived with his wife but a short time, during which period two sons were born to them—Gustavo, whose later career was unfortunately not such as to bring credit to the memory of his illustrious father, and, Jorge, who died young.

Becquer was passionately fond of his children, and succeeded in keeping them with him after the separation from his wife. They were constantly the objects of his affectionate solicitude, and his last thoughts were for them. Becquer entered upon his new labors in , and was a fairly regular contributor until the suppression of the paper. Here he published the greater part of his legends and tales, as well as his remarkable collection of letters Desde mi Celda "From my Cell".

The following year his brother Valeriano, who up to that time had exercised his talents as a genre painter in Seville, came to join him in Madrid. He too had been unfortunate in his domestic relations, and the brothers joined in sympathy to form a new household.

A period of comparative comfort seemed to open up before them. This period was of short duration, however; for Gustavo who was never strong soon fell ill, and was obliged to withdraw from the capital, in search of purer air, to the historic monastery of Veruela, situated on the Moncayo, a mountain in northern Spain.

His brother Valeriano accompanied him, and there they passed a year in complete isolation from the rest of the world. The next year the two brothers returned to the capital, and Gustavo, together with his friend D. Felipe Vallarino, began the publication of La Gaceta literaria , of brief but brilliant memory. At the Baths of Fitero in Navarre, whither, with his inseparable brother, he had gone to recuperate his health in the summer of , Gustavo composed the fantastic legend of the Miserere , and others no less interesting.

At this time Luis Gonzalez Bravo, a man of fine literary discrimination, whatever may be thought of him politically, was prime minister under Isabel II. He had become interested in the work of Gustavo, and, knowing the dire financial straits in which the young poet labored, he thought to diminish these anxieties and thus give him more time to devote to creative work by making him censor of novels.

A new period of calm and comparative comfort began, and for the first time in his life Becquer had the leisure to carry out a long-cherished project, at once his own desire and the desire of his friends: that of gathering together in one volume all his scattered verse and of adding to the collection other poems as well that had not yet seen the light.

This he did, and the completed volume so charmed his friend and patron, Gonzalez Bravo, that he offered of his own accord to write a prologue for the work and to print it at his own expense. But in came the revolution which dethroned Isabel II, and in the confusion that followed the downfall of the ministry and the hasty withdrawal of Gonzalez Bravo to the French frontier the volume of poems was lost.

This was a sad blow to Becquer, but he courageously set to work to repair the loss, and with painful effort succeeded in recalling and rewriting his Rimas , which were published after his death in the third volume of his works by his friend Correa. Becquer, with extreme punctiliousness, tendered his resignation as censor of novels.

A pension of 10, reals that the government had assigned to Valeriano for the study of national customs was withdrawn, and both brothers were again deprived of permanent employment. They joined forces, and while the one sketched admirable woodcuts for the Almanac Anual of Gaspar y Roig, the other wrote such original articles as Las Hojas Secas , or chafed under such hack work as the translation of popular novels from the French, which language he read with ease, though he did not speak it well.

An amusing account is given by Correa of an adventure that befell the two brothers one night in Toledo as they were wandering about its streets. He says: "One magnificent moonlight night both artists decided to contemplate their beloved city bathed in the fantastic light of the chilly orb. The painter armed with pencils and the writer with his souvenirs had abandoned the old city and on a ruined wall had given themselves up for hours to their artistic chatter They heard something of apses, squinches, ogives, and other terms as suspicious or as dangerous The staff en masse wrote to the mistaken jailer, and at last we saw the prisoners return safe and sound, parodying in our presence with words and pencils the famous prisons of Silvio Pellico.

The first number of this noteworthy paper appeared on January 12 of that year, and from its inception to the time of his death Gustavo was its director and a regular contributor. There remains for the future editor of his complete works a large number of such articles, which it would be well worth while to collect. Their life of hardship and anxiety was tearing to shreds the delicate health of the two young artists, and on September 23, , Valeriano breathed his last in the arms of Gustavo.

His death was a blow from which Gustavo never recovered. It was as though the mainspring was broken in a watch; and, though the wheels still turned of their own momentum, the revolutions were few in number and soon ceased. Without any precise symptom, that which was diagnosed as pneumonia turned to hepatitis, becoming in the judgment of others pericarditis, and meanwhile the patient, with his brain as clear as ever and his natural gentleness, went on submitting himself to every experiment, accepting every medicine, and dying inch by inch.

In the Prologue of the first edition Correa relates the life of his friend with sympathy and enthusiasm, and it is from this source that we glean most of the facts that are to be known regarding the poet's life. The appearance of these volumes caused a marked effect, and their author was placed by popular edict in the front rank of contemporary writers. Becquer may be said to belong to the Romantic School, chief of whose exponents in Spain were Zorilla and Espronceda. The choice of mediaeval times as the scene of his stories, their style and treatment, as well as the personal note and the freedom of his verse, all stamp him as a Romanticist.

His legends, with one or two exceptions, are genuinely Spanish in subject, though infused with a tender melancholy that recalls the northern ballads rather than the writings of his native land. His love for old ruins and monuments, his archaeological instinct, is evident in every line.

So, too, is his artistic nature, which finds a greater field for its expression in his prose than in his verse. Add to this a certain bent toward the mysterious and supernatural, and we have the principal elements that enter into the composition of these legends, whose quaint, weird beauty not only manifests the charm that naturally attaches to popular or folk tales, but is due especially to the way in which they are told by one who was at once an artist and a poet.

Zorilla has been said to be Becquer's most immediate precursor, in that he possesses the same instinct for the mysterious. But, as Blanco Garcia observes, "Becquer is less ardent than Zorilla, and preferred the strange traditions in which some unknown supernatural power hovers to those others, more probable, in which only human passions with their caprices and outbursts are involved. One is caught by the music of the prose at the first lines, enraptured by the weird charm of the story, and held in breathless interest until the last words die away.

If Becquer's phrase is not always classic, it is, on the other hand, vigorous and picturesque; and when one reflects upon the difficult conditions under which his writings were produced, in the confusion of the printing-office, or hurriedly in a miserable attic to procure food for the immediate necessities of his little family, and when one likewise recalls the fact that they were published in final book form only after the author's death, and without retouching, the wonder grows that they are written in a style so pleasing and so free from harshness.

Becquer's prose is doubtless at its best in his letters entitled Desde mi Celda , written, as has been said, from the monastery of Veruela, in Read his description of his journey to the ancient Aragonese town of Tarazona, picturesquely situated on the River Queiles, of his mule trip over the glorious Moncayo, of the peacefulness and quiet of the old fortified monastery of Veruela, and you will surely feel inspired to follow him in his wanderings.

Writing of his life in the seclusion of Veruela, Becquer says: "Every afternoon, as the sun is about to set, I sally forth upon the road that runs in front of the monastery doors to wait for the postman, who brings me the Madrid newspapers. In front of the archway that gives entrance to the first inclosure of the abbey stretches a long avenue of poplars so tall that when their branches are stirred by the evening breeze their summits touch and form an immense arch of verdure.

On both sides of the road, leaping and tumbling with a pleasant murmur among the twisted roots of the trees, run two rivulets of crystalline transparent water, as cold as the blade of a sword and as gleaming as its edge. The ground, over which float the shadows of the poplars, mottled with restless spots of light, is covered at intervals with the thickest and finest of grass, in which grow so many white daisies that they look at first sight like that rain of petals with which the fruit-trees carpet the ground on warm April days.

On the banks of the stream, amid the brambles and the reeds, grow wild violets, which, though well-nigh hidden amongst their creeping leaves, proclaim themselves afar by their penetrating perfume. And finally, also near the water and forming as it were a second boundary, can be seen between the poplar trunks a double row of stocky walnut-trees with dark, round, compact tops.

At one end of the road the view is closed by the monastery, with its pointed arches, its peaked towers, and its imposing battlemented walls; on the other, the ruins of a little hermitage rise, at the foot of a hillock bestrewn with blooming thyme and rosemary. There, seated at the foot of the cross, and holding in my hands a book that I scarcely ever read and often leave forgotten on the steps of the cross, I linger for one, two, and sometimes even four hours waiting for the papers.

The first impression that I feel upon receiving it, then, is one of joy, like that experienced upon opening a letter on whose envelope we recognize a dear familiar handwriting, or when in a foreign land we grasp the hand of a compatriot and hear our native tongue again. The peculiar odor of the damp paper and the printer's ink, that characteristic odor which for a moment obscures the perfume of the flowers that one breathes here on every hand, seems to strike the olfactory memory, a strange and keen memory that unquestionably exists, and it brings back to me a portion of my former life,—that restlessness, that activity, that feverish productiveness of journalism.

I recall the constant pounding and creaking of the presses that multiply by thousands the words that we have just written, and that have come all palpitating from our pens. I recall the strain of the last hours of publication, when night is almost over and copy scarce. I recall, in short, those times when day has surprised us correcting an article or writing a last notice when we paid not the slightest attention to the poetic beauties of the dawn.

In Madrid, and for us in particular, the sun neither rises nor sets: we put out or light the lights, and that is the only reason we notice it. At last he opens the sheet. The news of the clubs or the Cortes absorbs him until the failing light of the setting sun warns him that, though he has read but the first columns, it is time to go. The moon begins to appear in the east like a silver circle gleaming through the sky, and the avenue of poplars is wrapped in the uncertain dusk of twilight The monastery bell, the only one that still hangs in its ruined Byzantine tower, begins to call to prayers, and one near and one afar, some with sharp metallic notes, and some with solemn, muffled tones, the other bells of the hillside towns reply It seems like a harmony that falls from heaven and rises at the same time from the earth, becomes confounded, and floats in space, intermingling with the fading sounds of the dying day and the first sighs of the newborn night.

My soul is now as serene as deep and silent water. A faith in something greater, in a future though unknown destiny, beyond this life, a faith in eternity,—in short, an all-absorbing larger aspiration, overwhelms that petty faith which we might term personal, that faith in the morrow, that sort of goad that spurs on irresolute minds, and that is so needful if one must struggle and exist and accomplish something in this world.

This graceful musing, full in the original of those rich harmonies that only the Spanish language can express, will serve sufficiently to give an impression of the series as a whole. The broad but fervent faith expressed in the last lines indicates a deeply religious and somewhat mystical nature. This characteristic of Becquer may be noticed frequently in his writings and no one who reads his works attentively can call him elitist, as have some of his calumniators.

Beautiful as Becquer's prose may be considered, however, the universal opinion is that his claim to lasting fame rests on his verse. Humphrey Ward, in her interesting article entitled "A Spanish Romanticist,"[1] says of him: "His literary importance indeed is only now beginning to be understood. Of Gustavo Becquer we may almost say that in a generation of rhymers he alone was a poet; and now that his work is all that remains to us of his brilliant and lovable personality, he only, it seems to us, among the crowd of modern Spanish versifiers, has any claim to a European audience or any chance of living to posterity.

Becquer has none of the characteristics of the Andalusian. His lyrical genius is not only at odds with that of Southern Spain, but also with his own inclination for the plastic arts, says Blanco Garcia. She doubtless inspired some of his verse; but the poet seems to sing the praises or lament the cruelty of various sweethearts.

The late Don Juan Valera, who knew Gustavo well, goes so far as to say: "I venture to suspect that none of these women ever lived in the world which we all corporeally inhabit. To enjoy or suffer really from such loves and to become ensnared therein with such rare women, Becquer lacked the time, opportunity, health, and money My affections are divided between the phantasms of my imagination and real personalities.

My memory confuses the names and dates, of women and days that have died or passed away with the days and women that have never existed save in my mind. Madrid, , vol. I, pp. It is the fantastic love of the northern ballads, timid and reposeful, full of melancholy tenderness, that occupies itself in weeping and in seeking out itself rather than in pouring itself forth on external objects. Bare of artificiality, free within a free form, it awakens by the aid of one kindred idea the thousand others that sleep in the bottomless ocean of fancy.

The first has an acknowledged value; it is the poetry of everybody. The second lacks any absolute standard of measurement; it takes the proportions of the imagination that it impresses; it may be called the poetry of poets. In this description of the short, terse, and striking compositions of his friend Ferran, Becquer has written likewise the apology for his own verse. His was a poetry of "rapid, elemental impressions.

This extreme simplicity and naturalness of expression may be well illustrated by the refrain of the seventy-third poem:. His poetry has often been compared to that of Heine, whom he is said to have imitated.

Becquer did not in fact read German; but in El Museo Universal , for which he was a collaborator, and in which he published his Rimas , there appeared one of the first versions of the Intermezzo ,[1] and it is not unlikely that in imitation of the Intermezzo he was led to string his Rimas like beads upon the connecting thread of a common autobiographical theme.

In the seventy-six short poems that compose his Rimas , Becquer tells "a swiftly-moving, passionate story of youth, love, treachery, despair, and final submission. Some of these poems are extremely beautiful, particularly the tenth. They form a sort of prelude to the love-story itself, which begins in our selections with the thirteenth. Not finding the realization of his ideal in art, the poet turns to love.

This passion reaches its culminating point in the twenty-ninth selection, and with the thirtieth misunderstanding, dissatisfaction, and sadness begin. Despair assails him, interrupted with occasional notes of melancholy resignation, such as are so exquisitely expressed in the fifty-third poem, the best-known of all the poet's verse. With this poem the love-story proper comes to a close, and "the melancholy, no doubt more than half imaginary and poetical, of his love poems seems to broaden out into a deeper sadness embracing life as a whole, and in which disappointed passion is but one of the many elements.

Whatever Becquer may have owed to Heine, in form or substance, he was no servile imitator. In fact, with the exception of the thirtieth, no one of his Rimas seems to be inspired directly by Heine's Intermezzo. The distinguishing note in Heine's verse is sarcasm, while that of Becquer's is pathos. Heine is the greater poet, Becquer, the profounder artist. As Blanco Garcia well points out,[1] the moral inclinations of the two poets were distinct and different also.

Becquer's instinct for the supernatural freed him from Heine's skepticism and irreligion; and, though he had suffered much, he never doubted Providence. The influence of Alfred de Musset may be felt also in Becquer's Rimas , particularly in the forty-second and forty-third; but in general, the Spanish poet is "less worldly and less ardent"[1] than the French.

The Rimas are written for the most part in assonanced verse. A harmonious rhythm seems to be substituted for the music of the rhyme. The meter, too, is very freely handled. Notwithstanding all this, the melody of Becquer's verse is very sweet, and soon catches and charms even the foreign ear.

His Rimas created a school like that inspired by the Doloras of Campoamor. But the extreme simplicity and naturalness of Becquer's expression was difficult to reproduce without falling into the commonplace, and his imitators have for the most part failed. This letter is of particular interest, showing, as it does, the tender solicitude of Becquer for his children, his dire financial straits when a loan of three or four dollars is a godsend, and his hesitation to call upon friends for aid even when in such difficulties.

The letter was presented to the writer of this sketch by Don Francisco de Laiglesia, a distinguished Spanish writer and man of public life and an intimate friend of Becquer. Obras de Gustavo A. Three volumes. Juan de la Puerto Vizcaino y D. Becquer is the author of only a portion of this work—see Introduction, p. The same can be said of other periodicals for which Becquer collaborated. Traduction de Achille Fouquier, dessins de S.

Paris, Librairie de Firmin-Didot et Cie, Terrible Tales—Spanish. Gibbings, London, W. Francisco Blanco Garcia. Narciso Campillo. Achille Fouquier. An interesting sketch of Becquer's life and an excellent appreciation of his style. This article contains important genealogical matter regarding Becquer, which had not until that time been published.

Eduardo de Lustono. Becquer is the titie of a sketch by this writer, published in Alrededor del Mundo , No. It is largely a copy of the article by Narciso Campillo, mentioned above, and of the following by Rodriguez Correa. This is the principal biography of Becquer and the source of all the others. Its author was Becquer's most intimate friend. Juan Valera. Restituto del Valle Ruiz, Agustino. In his Estudios Literarios , pp.

Becquer, which contains an interesting critique of his poetry. Mary A. Humphrey Ward, in Macmillan's Magazine , No. The basis for the following remarks on Spanish prosody is, for the most part, E. Benot's Prosodia Castellana y Versification , 3 vols. Other works which have been consulted are the Ortologia y Arte Metrica of A. Bello, published in his Obras Completas , vol.

Spanish versification has nothing to do with the quantity of vowels whether long or short , which was the basis of Latin prosody. There are four important elements in Spanish versification. Of these four elements two are essential, and the other two are usually present.

When such is the case, intricacies arise, for sometimes the contiguous vowels are pronounced in a single syllable and sometimes they are divided into separate syllables. The contiguous vowels may belong to a single word see A ; or they may be the final vowel or vowels of one word and the initial vowel or vowels of a following word or words see B.

Diphthongization ,—If two contiguous vowels of a single word are pronounced in but one syllable they form a diphthong, e. Since Spanish verse depends upon a determined number of syllables per line, diphthongization and synalepha are important factors in versification.

Mute h between vowels is disregarded and does not prevent diphthongization, e. The separation of two vowels that are usually united in one syllable is called diaeresis , e. The union in one syllable of two vowels that are usually in separate syllables is called synaeresis , e. The vowels may be divided into strong vowels a, e, o and weak vowels i, u. For purposes of versification y as a vowel may be treated as i.

The five vowels a, e, o, i, u taken in pairs may form diphthongs in twenty-five possible combinations, as follows:. NOTE: In diphthongs a dominates o and e; and o dominates e. Any strong vowel dominates a weak one. There are with regard to accent three possible conditions under which two contiguous vowels may occur within a word.

But in order to diphthongize oa, ea, and eo, when the accent naturally falls on the first vowel, the accent must shift to the second, which is a dominant vowel. Such diphthongization is harsh. For example, loa would shift the accent from o to a in order to form a diphthong.

The diphthong is rarely dissolved, and is usually marked with a diaresis, if dissolution takes place. It should be remembered that in some words the accentuation is variable, while in others it is fixed. There are two classes of words that have a variable accentuation: first, those in which an unaccented weak vowel is followed by an accented strong vowel, e.

If three vowels belonging to the same word are contiguous, one of them must be accented. There are then three possible arrangements. Each of the above arrangements has two combinations of accented and unaccented vowels to which the rules for diphthongs may be applied. In i there will be a combination of two vowels with the first accented, plus a combination of two vowels after the accent. In ii there will be a combination of two vowels with the accent an the second, and one of two vowels with the accent on the first.

Therefore, creia would probably be a trisyllable. In iii there will be a combination of two vowels before the accent, and one of two vowels with the second accented. Other combinations of three vowels may be analyzed in a similar way, as may also combinations of more than three vowels, e.

Between the contiguous vowels of separate words there may occur synalepha which corresponds to diphthongization within a word , or hiatus which is similar to diaeresis within a word. Synalepha may join into a single syllable two, three, four, and even five vowels.

The union of two vowels diphthongal synalepha and the union of three vowels triphthongal synalepha are the most common. A pause due to a break in sense does not prevent synalepha. Mute h is disregarded in the verse and does not prevent synalepha. NOTE: Synalepha is possible with the other combinations, but hiatus is preferable even with the above combinations, in a syllable on which the rhythmical accent falls see under Rhythmic Accent.

There is always triphthongal synalepha when a is the middle vowel; or when o or e is the middle vowel, except in the following combinations, aoa, aoo, ooo, aea, aeo, oea, oeo. There is never triphthongal synalepha when an accented weak vowel stands between two strong vowels. When u is the middle vowel there may be synalepha if i follows it. The construction is very rare. In the following cases the groups of vowels which would usually make triphthongal synalepha are pronounced in two syllables:.

Hiatus is most frequently found between words having a close syntactical relation, particularly if the initial vowel of the second word is in a constituent syllable. It may occur between the article and its substantive, the possessive adjective and its substantive, a preposition and its object, the negatives no and ni and a following vowel; and after the conjunctions y, que, si , and other words having a weak accent such as desde, coma, todo, otro, cuando , etc.

Hiatus is most likely to occur when the accented vowel is the initial vowel of the final word in a phrase or verse, or of a word that has a strongly accented position in the verse; as, for example, when the syllable is the next to the last syllable in a verse, or is the fourth or eighth syllable of a hendecasyllabic verse of the second class. When both vowels are accented hiatus is more common than synalepha, even though there is no close syntactical relation, although the vowels may be joined by synalepha if they do not come in a constituent syllable.

The second essential element of Spanish verse is a rhythmic distribution of accents within a line. Words have an accent of their own and another stronger accent on account of their position in a verse. This extraordinary accentual stress, which strengthens periodically certain naturally accented syllables of a verse, is known as rhythmic accent. All other accents and pauses in the verse are subservient to the rhythmic accent. Spanish verse being accentual, however, and not quantitative, the terms used to determine the regular recurrence of long and short syllables in Latin verse are not very applicable to it, and few compositions are regular in the arrangement of the stress.

As Latin terms of versification are sometimes applied to Spanish verse, the following rules may be helpful. A trochaic octosyllabic line, for example, substituting stress for quantity, would be scanned. Dactylic verse would have a regular recurrence of an accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables, etc. This construction is sometimes followed in lines of twelve syllables p. This is sometimes found in ten-syllable lines p. An accented word is called aguda when it has the accent on the last syllable, e.

In a verso agudo the last syllable counts for two syllables. In a verso llano grave the number of syllables does not change. In verses of different length there are different rules with regard to the distribution of accents, but the following general rules should be observed. Besides the necessary accent on the next to the last syllable, all verses of seven syllables or more must have other necessary accents, which are determined by the number of syllables in the line.

The syllable directly preceding the one that has the rhythmical accent should never be accented, for it obstructs the proper accentuation of the constituent syllable. A syllable so accented is called obstruccionista. Spanish verse may consist of any number of syllables from two up to sixteen.

All must have an accent on the next to the last syllable. Trisyllabic Verse : A verse of three syllables can have no supernumerary accent, for the accent would be obstruccionista. Tetrasyllable Verse : A verse of four syllables must have an accent on the third syllable. There may or may not be a supernumerary accent on the first. Pentasyllabic Verse : A verse of five syllables must have an accent on the fourth. It may or may not have a supernumerary accent on the first or second syllable.

Adonic verse is a pentasyllable with necessary accents on the first and fourth syllables. Hexasyllabic Verse : A verse of six syllables must have an accent on the fifth. There may or may not be supernumerary accents, but never on the fourth syllable.

Heptasyllabic Verse : A verse of seven syllables must have an accent on the sixth, and at least one other necessary accent, which may be on any syllable except the fifth. Octosyllabic Verse : A verse of eight syllables must have an accent on the seventh, and at least one other accent, which may fall on any syllable except the sixth.

First Class : Verses of eleven syllables which have the sixth syllable and the tenth syllable stressed are hendecasyllables of the first class. Hendecasyllables of the first class may have supernumerary accents on other syllables, provided they do not fall upon the fifth or ninth.

Second Class : Hendecasyllables of the second class are eleven-syllable verses with the accent on the fourth, eighth, and tenth syllables. There may be accents on other syllables, provided that they be not obstruccionistas. If it is difficult to classify a hendecasyllable because it has accents on the fourth, sixth, eighth, and tenth syllables, one must decide on the prominence of the accents from pauses, or from emphasis.

The hendecasyllable,. The accent on the sixth is, then, not constituent, but supernumerary. The dissyllable is the only exception. The facultative accent is opposed to the regular recurrence in each line of dissyllabic and trisyllabic elements, which elements caused the rhythm of Latin verse. Spanish rhythm is a rhythm of series, of strophes, not a rhythm of regularly recurring accents within a verse. Verses of ten or twelve syllables, however, lend themselves more readily to rhythm from regularly recurring stress.

Dodecasyllable Verse : A verse of twelve syllables, with the stress on the second, fifth, eighth, and eleventh syllables, makes a dodecasyllable of amphibrachs. This dodecasyllable has a short metrical pause after the sixth syllable, and a longer one after the twelfth. Verses of different length do not readily intermingle. There are some measures, however, which are used much together.

Verses of ten syllables are used with those of twelve p. These meters lend themselves to regularly recurring stress more readily than any others. The caesura is an important, though not essential, element in Spanish verse. In verses of eleven or twelve syllables, however, the caesura is usually employed to give a break in a determined place. The caesura requires a strong accent on the syllable preceding it, and does not prevent synalepha. The disposition of the caesural pauses determines the harmony of the versification, and usually varies with the accents so as to avoid monotony in the verse.

NOTE: Final s and final n, especially in the plural of nouns and in verbs, do not count. Therefore, penas and arenas would form a feminine rhyme. Consonantal rhyme is one in which all the letters, vowels and consonants, are the same from the accented syllable to the end of the word, e. In consonantal rhyme both consonants and vowels should agree exactly sonante—errante ; b and v can, however, rhyme together, since they represent the same sound, e.

A word should not rhyme with itself. Sometimes, however, a simple word rhymes with a derivative menor—pormenor or two derivatives with each other menosprecio—desprecio. If an unaccented weak vowel i, u precedes or follows a strong vowel in the same syllable of a word, it is absorbed by the strong vowel, and does not count in the rhyme.

Therefore, vuelo and cielo rhyme; also muestra and diestra. When the vowels from the accented syllable to the end of the word are the same, but the consonants are different, the rhyme is called assonance. In words accented on the last syllable agudas , the assonance is that of the last syllable only, e. In diphthongs the accented vowel only is considered if the diphthong occur in an accented syllable. Therefore, verte and duermes assonate in e-e; baile and parte assonate in a-e.

For purposes of assonance little use is made of words accented on a syllable preceding the antepenult. In a final accented or unaccented syllable u and i are absorbed, for purposes of assonance, by a preceding or following a, o, or e. If in assonance a weak vowel is united in a diphthong with a strong vowel, the assonance is called compound assonance , e.

Assonance between two single vowels is called simple assonance , e. This distinction is of little value, however, for verses in simple and compound assonance alternate constantly. In the case of two strong vowels forming a diphthong after an accented syllable, the following rules apply.

When two weak vowels i, u are united in a diphthong, the second predominates. Words that have in the final unaccented syllable i or u, not in diphthongs, are considered for purposes of assonance as if ending in e or o respectively. If ai occurs in a syllable after an a in the accented syllable, the i rather than the a of the diphthong counts in the assonance.

If the accented vowel is not a, the a of ai counts in the assonance. Consonantal rhyme should not be introduced in compositions written in assonance. This rule is not always observed see pp. The assonance of alternate lines the even numbers is the rule in modern Spanish.

If the composition is short the same assonance may be kept throughout. Blank Verse. Compositions in blank verse are, however, extremely difficult to write in Spanish, and are therefore comparatively rare. The strophe is frequently of arbitrary length, yet when the poet has once fixed the measure of his strophe he is supposed to preserve the same measure throughout.

The following are some of the strophic arrangements in Spanish. Pareados are pairs of contiguous verses of the same number of syllables, which rhyme[1] together in pairs. Tercetos are a series of strophes, in the first of which the first verse rhymes with the third, and, from the second strophe on, the first and third verse of each successive strophe rhyme with the middle verse of the preceding strophe.

This form of verse is known in Italian as terza rima. The composition ends with a serventesio see below , of which the first and third verses rhyme with the middle verse of the preceding strophe. The rhyme-scheme, then, would be a b a, b c b, c d c, etc. Cuartetas , properly so called, are strophes of four eight-syllable verses, of which the second verse rhymes or is in assonance with the fourth.

Cuarteta is likewise a general name given to strophes of four verses. Serventesios are strophes of four hendecasyllables, of which the first rhymes or assonates with the third, and the second with the fourth. Redondillas are strophes of four eight-syllable or sometimes six-syllable verses which rhyme as follows: a b b a.

Cuartetos are strophes of four hendecasyllables with the rhyme-scheme a b b a. It is not customary to put a final word that is aguda in the uneven verses of compositions written in hendecasyllables, or in verses that rhyme with them. Romances , which are the most used of all forms, need not be written in cuartetas. It is sufficient that the even verses be in assonance and the uneven verses free. Romances, properly so called, are composed of octosyllabic verses.

Quintillas are combinations of five verses that have but two rhymes, of which one occurs three times and the other twice. These verses may rhyme at the will of the poet, provided that three verses having the same rhyme do not follow each other successively. Of the possible arrangements the following occur most frequently: a a b b a, a b b a a, a b a b a, a b a b b. Sextinas are usually composed of six hendecasyllabic verses in which a serventesio is followed by a pareado.

The first, third, and fifth verses, however, may rhyme together, and the second, fourth, and sixth. There are also sextinas which have the third and sixth verses with a consonantal rhyme in words that are agudas , while the first and second, and the fourth and fifth, form pareados.

In compositions written in sextinas the succeeding strophes have the same arrangement as the first. Octavas de Arte mayor are composed of eight dodecasyllables divided into two equal hemistichs, with the accents on the second, fifth, seventh, and eleventh syllables.

The first verse rhymes with the fourth, fifth, and eighth; the second with the third; and the sixth with the seventh. Sometimes the second rhymes with the fourth, the fifth with the eighth, the first with the third, the sixth with the seventh.

Octavas reales are strophes of eight hendecasyllabic verses llanos , of which the first six rhyme alternately and the last two form a pareado. When octavas of this form have eight-syllable verses or less, they are called octavillas. Second variant : The first and fifth verses are libres and the others rhyme 1 b b c 5 d d c. This form is the most used of all. Fourth variant : The rhymes have some other arrangement than those mentioned in the three preceding cases.

Thus far all the compositions treated have been strophes, of which all the lines have the same number of syllables. The most common strophes having an unequal number of syllables in the component verses are as follows:. Endechas reales are cuartetas in which three heptasyllables are followed by a hendecasyllable. The even verses are usually in assonance, although the verses may have the rhyme-scheme a b a b. The Lira is a strophe of five verses, of which the first, third, and fourth are heptasyllables, and the second and fifth are hendecasyllables.

The rhyme-scheme is a b a b b. Seguidillas are strophes composed of seven verses, three of which are heptasyllables and four pentasyllables. The first, third, and sixth verses are libres , the second and fourth have the same assonance, and the fifth and seventh another distinct assonance. Silvas are series of strophes composed of hendecasyllables and heptasyllables of unequal number and unevenly distributed with a free arrangement of rhymes. Every verse should rhyme with another, yet sometimes a verse is left unrhymed in long compositions.

The Sonnet is taken from the Italian and has the same general forms. It is written in hendecasyllables, and is always divided into four parts—two quatrains and two tercets. Versos sueltos blank verse are verses which do not assonate with the other contiguous verses, or with the nearest words in which the sense demands a pause. There are many other and very artificial forms that exist, but their treatment would be irrelevant here.

During the nineteenth century the caprice of the poet invented many new forms of which the arrangement is evident at a glance. In closing, it should be said that this study of Spanish prosody, which is primarily intended as an aid to the reading of Becquer's poetry contained in this volume, is necessarily too brief to be exhaustive, and many things are purposely omitted, as, for example, certain unusual forms of verse such as the nine-syllable verse or that of more than twelve syllables.

Wherever it has been found convenient, references have been made to Becquer's poems to illustrate points of versification. It is famous for its two cathedrals, El Pilar and La Seo, and for its obstinate and heroic resistance at the time of the siege by the French in See Brewer, Dictionary of Miracles , Phila. A small village of some inhabitants, situated in the province of Saragossa on the northern slope of the Moncayo see p.

A small village of some inhabitants, situated in the province of Saragossa near the Moncayo and not far from the river Huecha. It contains an ancient castle. See p. A mountain of some feet in height situated near the boundaries of the provinces of Soria and Saragossa, to the west of the town of Borja and to the south of Tarazona. The panorama presented to the view from its summit is most extensive.

To the south can be seen vaguely the Sierra de Guadarrama, to the southeast the mountains of Teruel, to the east the plain of the Ebro, to the north and northeast the Pyrenees and to the west the summits of the Cantabrian range. The rivers Queiles, Huecha, and others of less importance have their source in the Moncayo.

It is the ancient Mons Caunus , celebrated in history for the defeat of the Celtiberians in the time of the consul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus governor of Hither Spain from to B. Loose construction, in which the relative pronoun object of the first verb is understood as subject of the second.

Yo creo que he visto unos ojos como los que he pintado en esta leyenda. Se ve el rastro de la sangre entre las zarzas del monte, y al saltar uno de esos lentiscos han flaqueado sus piernas Saint Saturius was born, according to Tamayo, in In he withdrew from the world into a cave at the foot of a mountain bathed by the river Duero, near where now stands the town of Soria.

There he lived about thirty-six years, or until , when he died and was buried by his faithful disciple St. Prudentius, later bishop of Tarazona, who had been a companion of the hermit during the last seven years of his life. His cave is still an object of pilgrimage, and a church has been built on the spot to the memory of the saint.

A mediaeval-looking town of inhabitants situated on a bleak plateau on the right bank of the Duero. It is the capital of a province of the same name. The old town of Numantia captured by the Romans under P. Cornelius Scipio AEmilianus, B. The choice of a grove of poplars as setting to the enchanted fount is peculiarly appropriate, as this tree belongs to the large list of those believed to have magical properties.

In the south of Europe the poplar seems to have held sometimes the mythological place reserved in the north for the birch, and the people of Andalusia believe that the poplar is the most ancient of trees. In classical superstition the black poplar was consecrated to the goddess Proserpine, and the white poplar to Hercules.

There is a tradition that the Cross of Christ was made of the wood of the White Poplar, and throughout Christendom there is a belief that the tree trembles and shivers mystically in sympathy with the ancestral tree which became accursed Hemans, in her 'Wood Walk,' thus alludes to one of these old traditions:. A title taken doubtless from the little town of Almenar inhabitants situated in the province of Soria near the right bank of the Rituerto river, southwest of the Moncayo, and not far from that mountain.

A relic of the Latin pluperfect in -aram , -eram , popularly confounded with the imperfect subjunctive. Its use is now somewhat archaic, and is restricted to relative clauses. See Ramsey's Spanish Grammar , H. It is also the name of a small town of some inhabitants in the province of Barcelona. El que osa enturbiar su corriente, paga caro su atrevimiento. Los cazadores somos reyes del Moncayo, pero reyes que pagan un tributo.

Pieza que se refugia en esa fuente misteriosa, pieza perdida. Yo he cumplido con mi deber. As to the efficacy of holy water against evil spirits St. Teresa of Avila — speaks as follows:. I have learned from frequent experience that there is nothing better than holy water to drive them away and to prevent them from returning: they flee at the sight of the Cross, but return.

The virtue of holy water must be great indeed. En el lago caen con un rumor indescriptible. The Spanish Academy condemns the use of la instead of le as a feminine dative. Spanish writers, however, frequently so employ it.

Por una mirada, por una sola mirada de esos ojos Yo no castigo al que osa turbar la fuente donde moro; antes le premio con mi amor They feared that the water-spirits would drag the person's reflection or soul under water, leaving him soulless to die. This was probably the origin of the classical story of Narcissus The same ancient belief lingers, in a faded form, in the English superstition that whoever sees a water-fairy must pine and die.

The object of Fernando's love was evidently an undine see p. Population , It is traversed by mountains and intersected by the Ebro. During the middle ages it was one of the two chief Christian powers in the peninsula. In it became a kingdom; was united to Catalonia in ; rose to great influence through its acquisitions in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries of Valencia, the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, and the Sicilies; and was united with Castile in through the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon with Isabella of Castile.

Friday has long been considered an unlucky day, and Good Friday, in spite of its name, has been regarded by popular superstition as a fatal day. One born on that day might have particular aptitude for witchcraft. This might take the form of Christian mysticism, as in the case of St.

Leo, who is said to have been "marked all over with red crosses" at birth see Brewer, Dictionary of Miracles , Phila. Duncker , son of David and Bathsheba The name of Solomon, who was supposed to have possessed extraordinary magical powers, plays an important part in Eastern and thence in European legends," Century Dict. A venerable town of some inhabitants situated on the river Queiles, northeast of the Moncayo see p. Bartholomew,' one of the twelve apostles, deemed by some to be identical with Nathanael.

According to tradition he preached in various parts of Asia, and was flayed alive and then crucified, head downward, at Albanopolis in Armenia. His memory is celebrated in the Roman Catholic church on August In popular superstition St.

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Utorrent cz download The hendecasyllable. No tienes que trabajar en un garaje para estar en una startup. The sacred vessels of the church are said to play an important part in demonolatry. Joseph Bonaport. The magnificent staircase is due to Charles V, whose name the Alcazar sometimes bears. The idea of cleansing by "washing in Jordan" comes originally from the account of Elisha's cure of Naaman as related in II Kings v. A title taken doubtless from the little town of Almenar inhabitants situated in the province of Soria near the right article source of the Rituerto river, southwest of the Moncayo, and not far from that mountain.
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Digamos que es algo complicado en su caso. Espero que sacarme una foto con Aslan cuente como recuerdo, porque si no, no quiero nada. Hay varios autores que me intimidan que el mes pasado logre leer. Data innecesaria y que nadie me pregunto, pero que digo de todos modos.

Lo que la sinopsis dice me da ganas de ir y comprar el libro de una vez, y como me han dicho que es un buen libro para empezar con este autor, es un 2x1. Ah, esperen, si, mi esperanza de que era un libro de calidad. Pues eso me paso con este libro.

De igual manera, es un libro corto. No suelo leer libros que pueda considerar "raros", aunque si conozco varios que lo son En un inicio su rareza produjo que no me gustara. Pero como no me rindo con facilidad, prosegui con la lectura. Sin embargo, "Lo que todo gato quiere" se lleva el premio esta vez. Y la trama fue lo que me hizo pensar "mmMhMm Puedo darle una oportunidad". Subjetivamente, 1 chocolate, disfrute y personalmente si me genero intriga En ciertos puntos.

Pero eso, al menos entretiene. Y si no, well, acepto consejos como siempre. Me pasa parecido, yo no suelo tener autores ni nada como favorito de siempre, o me pilla en el momento o se me olvida pero no porque no me gustaran, eh xD.

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