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While both authors consider art cinema as a broad category, these specificities are the ones that have been pursued in Anglo-American film studies in their wake. But other aspects of these articles have been even more influential. This course is a continuation of that practiced by critics at the time of art cinemas efflorescence, at home and abroad. Again, the studies in this research line are countless.
Sure Seaters discusses the growth of the art house exhibition circuit for foreign films in the United States as an alternative cultural formation, especially in the s. At its root is the alignment of art cinema with modernism. The Break of The post—World War II era in Europe is understood in the history of the medium as a period of formation both for modern cinema and for the growth of an informed, critical, and intellectually ambitious film culture extending beyond mere popular moviegoing.
It was during these decades, in short, that narrative film came broadly to be accepted as an art and the film director as an artist. Indeed, riding on the slipstream of this transformation in cinema culture was academic film studies itself, which developed in the s in America and would a few years later in Britain into a field that would lead to rapid growth over the next decade.
As Robert C. West Germany: socialist student leader Rudi Dutschke is shot in the head by a young unskilled worker, and police kill two and arrest one thousand in the insurrection that follows. Kennedy are assassinated, the former event sparking riots and arson waves in urban ghettos across the country; campus sit-ins and revolts spread to more than two hundred campuses, notably Columbia, San Francisco State, Berkeley, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Cornell, where armed black students occupy university buildings; women stage a protest at the Miss America pageant in Atlantic City; demonstrations against President Lyndon B.
They organized the Estates Generale du Cinema to discuss the role of filmmakers, technicians, and critics as well as screenings at factories and sit-ins and documentation of the protests. It is important to place Anglo-American academic film studies within this nexus of historical forces. For example, throughout the s and s editorial policy at Cahiers du cinema was marked by a commitment to auteur and mise-en-scene criticism that manifested itself in an almost unqualified celebration of Italian neorealism, the French NewWave, and American cinema.
The pages of these journals promoted subsequent developments in film theory: neo-Marxism and semiotics, psychoanalysis and feminism, queer theory and postcolonial and cultural studies. It is through these terms and discourses that most 2 o Recovering European Art Cinema scholars would recognize the main political trajectory of post Anglo-American film studies through the late s. This trajectory has not been matched by a corollary one for film history, particularly as far as art cinema is concerned.
Film theory too was largely the province of artists, independent scholars, and buffs throughout the first half of the twentieth century, but it went through a much more visible process of academic development before and politicization quickly afterward.
As a result of the break of , art cinema was left largely to critics and historians to concern themselves about. Robert C. In the case of the French New Wave, these strands are articulated as two waves: the New Wave proper of and a second wave in — According to this sequencing, the first wave is modernist and apolitical, the second militant and political. This is predominantly not true: the New Wave film-makers were largely non-politicized.
Thus the first New Wave coincides with a growing youth culture, the rise of the jeune cadre, modernization, unprecedented industrial growth, economic prosperity and consumer power, the reformation of national institutions through the advent of the Fifth Republic and its new constitution, and decolonization. The force of politics in the late s has underscored academic film studies in ways no less telling than, and in many ways parallel to, its effects on cultural life in general.
The politicization of film culture in the wake of is conceded to have been short-lived and of limited success in altering the dominant modes of film production and reception. But by taking on the econopolitical bases of cinematic production as it did, by splintering modern cinema into two different camps, it threw into theoretical disfavor European art cinema.
To parody the debate somewhat, it was a question of Siegel, Fuller, Hitchcock, Hawks and Corman versus Antonioni, Bergman and Fellini, of genre versus personal expression, of in some extreme cases trash versus taste, hysteria versus restraint, energy versus decorum and quality. This was no radical break from the past. A great deal of this has to do with a continuing designation of European art cinema of the late s through the s as modernist in the wake of theories of the postmodern.
The philosopher of history Arnold Toynbee first used the term postmodernism in the late s to refer, negatively, to an age that begins in the late nineteenth century in the second stage of capital. The visual arts community has more or less settled on the transition from the Abstract Expressionism of the New York School to Pop around And from a Habermasian perspective the rise of postmodernism would have to be associated with the emergence of numerous poststructuralist writings in the late sixties.
On the one hand, most of its history coincides at one level or another with modernism in the other arts. On the other hand, the cinema is a product of sophisticated forms of cultural production, impossible to understand outside of the development of the latest stage of capitalism, and one may be tempted to proclaim it as always already postmodern and leave it at that.
Few have made either of these moves, however, and the historiography of the medium has, following an art history model, produced a set of periodizations that look roughly as follows: pre- and early cinema s— , silent cinema — , classical sound cinema , modern cinema — , and contemporary or postmodern cinema —present. In other words, it is a conjunctural term at the interface between artefact and the new moment of capitalism.
In the case of France this moment dates from the birth of the Fifth Republic, again justifying the nomenclature for this age of cinema as postmodern. The issue of whether the French New Wave and, by extension, the European art cinemas of the same era is postmodern or modern is more than simply a terminological quibble.
It carves out a space for how one should read this cinema, how one should understand its relation to the history of the medium and to the cultures of its time. Rodowick has observed how the protagonists of New Wave films. In so doing they represent a kind of postmodern historical subjectivity—the faltering belief in totality, either from the point of view of the great organic ideologies or from a belief in the image as anything other than a partial and contingent description of reality.
Indeed, these shifts may be seen as the generative mechanisms for that emergence. But this day had not as yet come; until that day they were permitted, if one may put it that way, to pass their time. Is this not also the age of cinephilia that Sontag so fondly, so wistfully recalled? In fact, analyzing European art cinema as part of a cultural and historical milieu that gave rise to postmodernism reveals that its modernism is not so much an aesthetic phase or an epoch that has now been exhausted as it is a set of historical and theoretical reading protocols that have held art cinema in a holding pattern for Anglo-American film studies.
The cinemas of the French New Wave and the new Italian cinema of the late s through the late s are central to this analysis for a number of reasons. Britain has historically shared closer ties and allegiances with America than with its continental neighbors in both general and cinema-specific terms, the latter at the levels of language and production finance especially: during the s, the focus of this study, American financial investment in British production reached unprecedented levels, peaking at 90 percent in It was not until the s that film culture in West Germany and Spain became recognized internationally within the context of art cinema discourse.
The West German case, however, requires further comments. Throughout I will be arguing the converse: that the issues at stake are central to the discourse of art cinema, and that their repression in film historical writing is due to a preferred form of analysis that has considered as extratextual what are in fact deeply structuring historical and political tensions of the period that everywhere leave their textual traces.
What are the political and economic bases of the international art film? How does the history of coproduction agreements and mandates between and among European nations impinge on the reception of European art films with their transnational casts and crews? During this period the stability of the concept of nation generally, and that of Italy and France specifically, was placed in crisis by modernization and neocapitalism on the one hand and an increasingly integrating Europe on the other.
Certainly, the prominence of international coproductions and of the adoption of English as the lingua franca of global cinema in the s has increased awareness of recent strategies taken by national cinema industries in the European Union.
But such strategies are by no means a recent phenomenon. Indeed, they have been employed, in varying degrees, throughout the history of European sound cinema. But such tensions and anxieties are also evident as traces in the heavily coproduced Italian and French art cinemas of the s and s, a period that, not coincidentally, witnessed the growth of the European Economic Community among other cultural and economic partnerships.
I consider the establishment and support of various national new waves circa as nation-building responses at the cultural level to transnational cooperation and European unification at the economic and industrial levels. By mapping this terrain, I wish to exert pressure 34 Recovering European Art Cinema on the national cinemas model for the historical writing of European art cinema.
Such a separation produces constitutively different forms of historical analysis. The history of numerous Eastern Central European new waves is thus grounded in the historical and political context of the Soviet bloc: the ideological thaw following the death of Stalin provides a space for freer filmic practices that critique the totalitarianism of the Communist Party.
Western European new waves, on the other hand, are considered according to a different set of criteria. Appropriation, misappropriation, collage, heterogeneity, hybridization, a mixing up of visual and verbal texts and discourses—postmodern style plays freely with these, and with little of the nostalgia or angst that characterizes modernism. But how are we to consider female representation in this period and this cultural form?
A primary object of address and fascination for European modernization and commodity culture, the modern woman is also a primary subject of art cinema. In the contemporary discourses of European art cinema there is a notable critical line on the matter of women. They are treated as positive agents of their own desire, central to the narrative, a liberated image of modern European womanhood.
As Greta Garbo and Emmanuelle Riva have been the pin-up girls of the soul, and Marlene Dietrich and Jeanne Moreau the pin-up girls of the senses, perhaps Monica Vitti will go down in film history as the first pin-up girl of the intellect. Quite the contrary, she is very childish, motivated solely by her impulses and not by her ideas. Antonioni was the first to show us this kind of woman. Deleuze suggests that after the war, a proliferation of.
The first, independent of the cinema, was the post-war situation with its towns demolished or being reconstructed, its waste grounds, its shanty towns, and even in places where the war had not penetrated, its undifferentiated urban tissue, its vast unused places, docks, warehouses, heaps of girders and scrap iron. For Deleuze, the sequencing of those breaks is Italy in , France in , and Germany in In my third chapter I map the modern subject in European art cinema through a trope common to many of the canonical examples of this cinema: the wandering woman.
The films of the French New Wave and the new Italian cinema are replete with female characters who function as both main protagonists and spectacles of alienated flanerie. My goal in chapter 3 is to historicize the modern woman of European art cinema so as to demonstrate how the discourse of postcolonialism may be applied and extended to texts not generally considered to engage with such issues.
Recovering European Art Cinema 39 The alienation that is so much a part of her characterization is a key sensibility of the flaneur as celebrated by Baudelaire in Paris of the Second Empire and eulogized by Benjamin in Berlin of the Weimar era.
The rise of the modern woman as a major player in the European art cinemas of the economic miracle raises for me deeply political and historical questions that, because these cinemas have been designated irredeemably modernist, have yet to be answered. To approach high modern European art cinema with this agenda in mind is not so much a contradiction as it is a remapping of coordinates.
If, on the one hand, the history of a suppressed knowledge is not to be automatically equated with the mere choice of the suppressed other as the object of research, conversely, the history of a dominant mode of production may also assume a connotation of suppressed knowledge. My analysis of the female colonial masquerade thus points to a new historiographic direction for European art cinema.
The Surrealist game of the exquisite corpse 40 Recovering European Art Cinema produced visual figures of unexpected combinations that serve here as graphic illustrations for both the omnibus film and academic film studies as a discursive field. On the rare occasions that they do make an appearance in the literature on European art cinema, omnibus films are either dismissed as a spurt of commercially oriented film ventures, the products of producers more than directors and therefore of no aesthetic interest, or read selectively and exclusively under an auteurist umbrella: specific episodes directed by major European directors are isolated as minor contributions to their bodies of work and evaluated on those terms only.
After the United States, whose output of omnibus films is consistent only since the s, Italy and France account for the highest levels of production, most notably in the s when a startling number of art film auteurs made one or, more usually, two or more. But how should one proceed to analyze and historicize such a data set?
While there are occasional temporal patterns that emerge from it—a spike of production in the s, an increasing incidence from the s through the s—omnibus films nonetheless cut across every decade Recovering European Art Cinema 41 since the s. I have come to the conclusion that these films are important not as discrete texts or as a genre or type of film but as a heterogeneous body through which can be traced the structures of film history and film studies into which it is incapable of being slotted— which is precisely why it has remained so hidden to the discipline.
By deploying the omnibus film as a heuristic device, I map the paradigms that underscore film historical writing— and, indeed, academic film studies from its inception—to demonstrate the reasons why they do not serve adequately for this form as well as more generally for the range of discourses it embodies. The additive tendency that characterizes academic film studies vis-a-vis new research programs and their objects has done very little to redraw the borders of the discipline that have been in place since the s.
This is true more so of film history than film theory, as the latter undergoes notable paradigm shifts in the way the former does not. But such game playing is more than a means to passing time. European art cinema was in the s a form of political engagement, and its designation as modernist has limited our understanding of both the degrees to and the manners in which this might be read textually and historically.
A second level of that engagement was cultural, particularly as concerns the categories of high versus low culture. It is through the omnibus film that such remappings are envisioned in this book. So, three more chapters, three different approaches to a range of objects. In the pages that follow, I hope to remap this potential as well as imagine its future. In a dubbed film, there is not the least rapport between what you see and what you hear. The dubbed cinema is the cinema of lies, mental laziness, and violence, because it gives no space to the viewer and makes him still more deaf and insensitive.
In Italy, every day the people are becoming more deaf at an alarming rate. French, Italian, German, and even Greek directors felt that it could not conceivably be in the interest of a united Europe to destroy nationally specific cultural or cinematic traditions by the stroke of a bureaucrats pen in favour of more harmonisation.
The series leaned toward European art cinema, which has not only produced a high proportion of such metafilms but has proven a mainstay of contemporary international film archive exhibition. As one might expect, the clientele for this and other similar series at the Dryden Theatre was a mix of film buffs and aficionados, professors and students, and local residents, all of whom possessed relatively high amounts of cultural capital. I saw a lovely new subtitled print in NYC last summer; surely you can get your hands on that.
But I would tell everyone I can to avoid at all costs a dubbed version. I grew up in Rochester, and spent more time at the Dryden than I can guess. For a real movie fan, the Eastman House is a treasure. How can a film archive, dedicating [sic] to preserving films as originally produced, fall to such a level as this?
Please advise ASAP. And, if it is merely a typo though I checked your on-line calendar for corrections , please accept my apologies for this rant. I pointed out that Day for Night was shot in France by a French director with a largely French cast and crew save for the key exceptions of the Italian Valentina Cortese and the British actors David Markham and Jacqueline Bisset; their presence registers the fact that Day for Night is not a French film but an international coproduction between France and Italy and Great Britain.
In fact, the film was coproduced by Warner Bros, through its London subsidiary, and one of the stipulations of the agreement was that Warner Bros, would have worldwide distribution rights for the film, excluding France and Italy. And the director of the film, Francois Truffaut, entered into production with full knowledge of this outcome. Like so many other postwar European films that won an Academy Award of some kind, the critical and popular success of Day for Night in the United States was due in no small part to the fact that it was generally distributed in English-dubbed prints other examples, from France and Italy alone, include Jeux interdits [Forbidden Games, ], La strada , Mon oncle , Ieri oggi domani [Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow, ], Un homme et unefemme , and Amarcord .
Our presentation of a dubbed print of Day for Night was thus archiv- ally sound as a practice. Of the ten features not produced in English that were presented at the Eastman House that early summer, only two were shown in dubbed prints: Day for Night and Fuego , the latter an erotic melodrama from Argentina screened as part of a series on exploitation films.
I expected no complaints regarding the aural status of Fuego, nor did I receive any. And when a European art film is shown and heard in the latter format, cinephiles are the first to object. Obviously we can never forget the subtitles in a subtitled film, but we know we are watching an attempt to bring us an unimpaired original, which is considerable compensation. They have cut it and dubbed it and thereby ruined whatever merit it may have had.
Both of these practices are painfully common among movie businessmen, and since they betray a fundamental lack of respect for the artist and the uniqueness of his vision, they are reprehensible at any level; the worst B picture is entitled to fail on its own terms. As for the dubbing, it has the familiar effect of alienating audience from characters.
On the one hand, these complaints seem perfectly reasonable even if they tend to be leveled only at art films. In fact, it is only by tabling these complexities and concentrating almost wholly on aesthetic considerations that one can argue for the inferiority of dubbed prints compared to subtitled ones. Such debates raged in the entertainment and op-ed pages of the New York Times and in film culture journals and little magazines in the early to mids; their outcomes effectively determined common knowledge that to this day permeates Anglo-American academic film studies, which was forged equally as much by the cosmopolitan British and American film magazine cultures bolstered by European art cinema in the s as by forces within the academy.
Partisans of dubbing ought to look at dubbed versions ot English-language films to see how a performance by Katharine Hepburn, Orson Welles, or John Wayne can be hurt by a voice that does not fit the body. With dubbing, all of the usual problems of translation are multiplied by the need to synchronize specific words with specific lip movements. Most important, with subtitling viewers still have access to the original soundtrack.
By eliminating the original voice track, dubbing simply destroys part of the film. Failure is assured. The dialogue tracks of art films are thus a rich site of contestation and are symptomatic of larger economic, political, and cultural forces in Europe in the s and s. A British or American film will usually be promoted by one company, or perhaps a couple: a Franco-Italian film may be backed by as many as half a dozen firms, with a key impresario who has set up the deal.
All this was becoming standard form even before the Common Market; and as the film industries of Western Europe gradually come closer together there are obvious economic benefits all round. The Western European market, viewed as a single identity, is a great deal more enticing than the French, Italian, or West German markets, seen as separate units divided from each other by language barriers.
International casting, international financing, fit the whole European pattern. Europe is moving towards a Common Market cinema. Examples of these include the Film Europe movement of the s, the coming of sound to Europe and the failed experiments with multilanguage film versions in —31, and the cross-cultural initiatives of the European Community EC since the early s.
In fact, it is not her distinctive voice at all: her vocal part has been dubbed into Italian by someone else. In fact, the sync is frequently off at times for even the Italian actors. All three of these films were undoubtedly shot without sound and postsynchronized later, sometimes with the performers looping their own dialogue Monica Vitti, for example, who met Antonioni in her capacity as a voice actress dubbing the Italian vocal part for one of the three non-Italian female performers in the Italo-American coproduction II grido  , at others—especially when they involved international stars—with the dialogue dubbed into Italian by uncredited Italian voice actors.
And it is this very instability—a historical and economic fact of the Italian sound film industry on the one hand, a variable syncing of bodies to voices in the case of non-Italian performers in prominent roles in coproductions on the other—that offers a fascinating site of incoherence in European art cinema. To think of film in European terms. That possibility was realized, I contend, through the new European cinemas of the s.
And to see—and hear—the historiographic significance of these discourses, it is necessary to read critically Anglo-American historical writing concerning European cooperative responses to the American film industry. One important historical moment in the historiography of the cooperative strategies of national film industries of Europe is located in the early s, when American competition became too great for any one country to counter. They were made for an international market, and little of the old German feeling for psychology and simplicity of treatment remained.
But America, with its sights set on the European market, entered the fray with a production method to overcome the language barrier: multilinguals, foreign-language versions, or as they are most frequently called, multiple-language versions MLVs. Sets and costumes were reused, entailing the shooting of versions in shifts according to a twenty-four-hour schedule. Production time was 62 The Name above the Subtitle short, often less than two weeks per feature.
The same holds true for Epinay: the few films of note produced there were made by another great French director, Rene Clair. Despite rationalization of production, MLVs meant an enormous increase in costs, and their standardization of plots worked against satisfying the cultural diversity of their target audiences. Dupont in English and German for British International Pictures at Elstree studios in November a third French version was shot immediately afterward.
An economic historical narrative of European domination by Hollywood in the immediate postwar era was forcefully proposed in by Thomas Guback. First looking at the economic base, he finds that, with the direct assistance of the U. The turning point was around , the year in which a subsidy was initiated in Britain and two years after inauguration of subsidization in France and Italy. He concludes The International Film Industry with a warning against internationally coproduced aesthetics, Anglo-European or pan- European, and the kinds of films they effect: So many of the new international films border on dehumanization by brutalizing sensitivity, often deflecting attention from reality.
They count on developing audience response with synthetic, machine-made images. Their shallowness and cardboard characters are camouflaged with dazzling colors, wide screens, and directorial slickness. Of course, undistinguished pictures have always been made, but now the context in which they are produced and marketed is substantially different.
Films of this genre are not a form of cultural exchange. In reality, they are anti-culture, the antithesis of human culture. And in taking this tack Guback both forecloses in his own work on a certain avenue of research and sets the terms for subsequent Anglo-American economic analyses of international filmmaking in Europe: economics in the European film industry equals Hollywood imperialism; the true realm of European cinema is not commercial but artistic, cultural—and national.
Art films are the products of individuals rather than institutions, authors rather than producers, limitation rather than excess, labors of love rather than money. The way of doing so is to turn to high art and to cultural traditions specific to the country involved. The film makes prominent, but not always exclusive, use of the English language. But the name of the auteur serves in these Euro-American art films as the ultimate stabilizer of identity in the face of the international aspects of the enterprise.
What this means, ultimately, for the historiographic lineage of the European art film is that it is a national and a personal product when it is made in the language of the director, and more simply a personal product when it is made in English. In both cases, the issue of national stability remains relatively unchallenged, although the name of the auteur above the title anchors the European art film to its nation in a way that the same name above an English title does not.
A considerable amount of attention has been focused since the s on the contemporary state of the European film industry and of Common Market or EU filmmaking. The Uruguay round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade functioned as a catalyst for much of this attention, as it once again brought to a head embattled and entrenched positions regarding the film industry and film culture in Europe.
This flurry of pan-European activity was only partially successful on the industrial level and much less so on the ideological one, however, and in some ways it merely served to point out how little film and other audiovisual media had to do with the by then three-decade history and policies of the EEC.
Although commentators at the time thought that GATT brought the British closer to the French, that was far from the truth. The final months of the negotiation also highlighted the tendency for French politicos, culturecrats and in- dustryites to assume that what is best for France is also best for the rest of Europe. Indeed, not every pan-European initiative since the mids has made it through to legislation. The publication in the mids of a number of EU-sponsored studies on the economic and industrial problems of contemporary European cinema suggests that such outcry was both premature and damaging to the prospect of future health for the industry.
Such a conception overlooks both the diverse reality of cultural forms and cultural differences within Europe both past and present , and the fact that it was this very European tradition which in the twentieth century generated both Fascism and totalitarianism. Despite the fact that all of them have been involved in European coproductions, their auteur status excuses them from complicity with the new imperialism of European integration. And it is symptomatic of all I have been arguing in this section that the question is not answered, not even addressed, by the two respondents who speak after it and wrap up the conference.
The matter of European coproduction, at least in terms of European art cinema and its heirs, produces silence. The table reveals that available statistics on the proportions of national productions to coproductions are widely at variance. But the numbers also indicate, despite their disparities, that coproduction has been a consistent feature of both French and Italian cinema since World War II.
But coproductions with whom? First and foremost, these films were not predominantly Euro-American but intra-European, and the majority of them were Franco-Italian. The signing of the Franco-Italian coproduction agreement in Rome in October marks the beginning of a consistent trend in French and Italian coproduction that developed slowly until but then began to take off, hitting its stride in the late s, peaking in the early to mids, and tapering off somewhat in the late s to Table 1.
The Name above the Subtitle 77 early s. According to Maurice Bessy et al. Aldo Bernardini documents similar ratios for Italy: in twenty-seven coproductions with France of a total of thirty-six; in forty-two of sixty; and in twenty-five of sixty-four.
Another trend for both cinemas through the s and s is the proliferation of bi- and trilateral coproductions with more and more national partners. Two trends are thus notable: a high incidence of French-Italian coproduction since and a proliferation ofbi- and trilateral coproduction agreements since the late s among the film-producing nations of Europe, along with several from North Africa and South America.
This means that coproductions generally cost more than purely national productions; indeed, the qualifications for state subsidies and the rules for the coproduction agreements established strict guidelines for minimum and maximum financial outlay on the parts of the coproducing partners according to broad definitions of film types. These coproductions were at least one-and-a-half, and often three times as expensive as normal national productions This is just the tip of the iceberg.
One is Le Mepris, of course, whose subject is precisely the making of an American-Italian-French coproduction, which it itself is. And Susan Hayward has put forward an intriguing take on Pierrot lefou as a coproduction allegory: Near the beginning of the film Ferdinand alias Pierrot , who is in the advertising business, is obliged by his Italian wife to attend a cocktail party. He turns up with her, as an unwilling guest.
At the party, the entire shooting of which is through a pink filter, women and men talk to each other in advertising-speak He then runs out of the party and dashes home only to elope with his former lover of five years past. In other words, the French film industry might just be able to avoid going under as an indigenous industry in its own right not only by foregoing co-productions with Italy but also by refusing to follow the candy-floss practices of Hollywood.
As well, Godard does not know Swedish and was therefore not in a position to direct their vocal performances, another problem coproductions elicit among their casts and crews. Or does he? The Name above the Subtitle 81 total film that each of us had carried within himself, the film that we wanted to make, or more secretly, no doubt, that we wanted to live.
II The minority participation in each film cannot be inferior to 30 percent of the cost of its production. III 1. The contribution of the minority coproducer must include an effective technical and artistic participation and at least an assistant director, a writer, an actor in a principle role, and actor in a secondary role. Each film must include employment of an Italian director or a French director corresponding to the conditions cited in Article 2.
IV Exceptions to the conditions of the preceding paragraphs can be granted by the authorities of the two countries to films of obvious artistic value or to special entertainment films. While the MLVs are generally considered to have been a failed experiment of the early sound period, a look at some The Name above the Subtitle 83 art films suggests the degree to which they neither failed nor were an experiment.
Related to the MLVs are remakes, which for Dries occur when there is a time lag between the productions of two language versions. Actors can be of different nationalities, but they must have the ability to act in the shooting language. Everett delivered his lines in English while other members of the cast spoke in Spanish.
As a character in a fictional story, he is barely present. Even by the end, we do not know who he is, where he is from, or what he wants. With so passive a part, it is difficult to accept him as the star of a major international production. The role dissolves into poses, narcissistic and non-functional in the narrative.
Is this a flaw in the acting, the consequence of a production with an eye to the market, using up a face while it is still in the news, or is it the sign of a mutation in the concept of the European anti-hero who has become the clone-hero of jeans ads and beer commercials?
In other words, are we watching a European art film, a Hollywood movie, or a Third Cinema post-modernist co-production? Simply subtitling the film, preserving all its linguistic polyphony, thus complicates rather than simplifies its national status. Dubbing it into English turns it into an entertainment film and would appear, as Neale suggests, to erase the marks of its more complex national status. And this is the case not simply for this more recent polyglot film but also for some of the great European art films of the s and s.
The comparisons are apt in terms of polyglot casting and Italian auteur cinema. What are the authentic versions of these films sound- wise? A second, more frequent approach is to acknowledge at the level of narrative the copresence of multiple nationalities in the same national space by casting actors as characters of their own nationalities.
Here Manni is cast as an Italian woodcutter and thus 86 The Name above the Subtitle his appearance and language nominally indicated, though not entirely explained. In a passage that draws attention to the unhinging of voice and body in art cinema at the same time as it offers a restabilization of national integrity as regards this issue, Michel Chion states: The freedom allotted in Italy for the synching of voices is already enormous, but Fellini in particular breaks all records with his voices that hang on the bodies of actors only in the loosest and freest sense, in space as well as in time In France the voice is often something people keep to themselves, as if someone might steal it.
No one makes a big deal out of it. Fellini takes this convivial side of voices in Italian movies quite far. He plays to the hilt the freedom cinema gives him to mix together voices and actors. Italian-dubbed, English-subtitled prints of these films present something of a limit case of loose play between actor and language, The Name above the Subtitle 87 voice and body, that is everywhere in operation in not only Italian but also French art cinema of the period.
In such cases, to demand a unilingual Italian sound track is to erase the linguistic polyvocality that registers the political economy of art filmmaking in that country from the s through the s. One reason is that these are Fellini and Visconti and Bertolucci films, thereby art films, and therefore they should be seen in subtitled prints. Ella Shohat and Robert Stam have offered one theory: In the case of the subtitled film, we hear the more-or-less alien sounds of another tongue.
If the language neighbours are our own, we may recognise a substantial proportion of the words and phrases. If more distant, we may find ourselves adrift on an alien sea of undecipherable phonic substance. Specific sound combinations might remind us of locutions in our own language, but we cannot be certain they are not phonetic faux amis.
As spectators, we forge a synthetic unity which transcends the heteroglot source material. In the art film, the achievement is related to the issue of an imagined nationhood as it pertains to language and director more than to a cognitive process. For if art cinema is even more a cinema of the image than others by dint of its auteurist mode of production, it would seem to be the case that the The Name above the Subtitle 89 image should take priority over sound; an art film, then, should be dubbed into other languages to preserve the purity of its mise-en- scene.
And yet the opposite is the case, in America and Britain at least: the image track of the subtitled art film is transgressed by the sound track in the form of text and punctuation. By the intertitles of Hollywood films were routinely translated into as many as thirty- six languages. With the sound film it was no longer possible simply to replace intertitles. Both subtitling and dubbing had been in use since , when the first American sound films reached Europe.
For the other countries of the FIGS group, culture and political ideology were determining causes. In Italy especially, where most people, including the filmmakers themselves, spoke dialect rather than the official Tuscan, dubbing forged a synthetic unity of a shared national language. Intranational dialects and the specificities of social and cultural differences were ironed out in the process. For the subtitling industry is not nationalized to the same degree as the dubbing one, as the translators are the key personnel and need not reside in the target country.
A dubbing company is dependent on the availability of actors for the recording of voices and therefore needs to be situated in an environment with good infrastructure, studios and a lot of actors. For subtitling, these factors are not an issue at all. Translators are used to working at home with their own subtitling equipment.
Competition in the subtitling business crosses national borders much more easily than it does for dubbing. While the ideal in subtitling is to translate each utterance in full, the limitation of screen space is a major obstacle. They focus audience attention on the translated words and the actors speaking them, excluding peripheral or background dialogue, sound, or characters.
And they do not provide as full a translation as does dubbing. As well, audiences of subtitled films do not experience the words and the expressions of the performers simultaneously. Subtitling may thus be regarded as undoing synergy of performance and script as well as of elevating selectively translated verbal messages and downgrading the impact and importance of visual expression.
But where does all this leave the polyglot transnational art film in terms of nationhood and identity? Certainly, the rise of European coproductions, particularly between France and Italy from the s through the early s, had visibly and aurally inscribed effects on the 92 The Name above the Subtitle textuality of the European art film in this period. The tension between national identity and international policy is borne out in the ultimate untranslatability of its specific confluences of sound and image, voice and body, language and performer.
If the remappings I have undertaken of the postwar cinemas of France and Italy throughout this chapter have clustered around a particular set of coordinates more than others, that set would have to include entanglements of the social, the aesthetic, the economic, and the geopolitical. For it is through the historical and the theoretical examination of these global and local forces, and in the fluctuating space between the illusive boundaries that divide them, that a new historiography of European art cinema may be envisaged.
These are forged from the roles and functions of white people in imperialism and the qualities of character that performing them is held to require and call forth. When a text is one of celebration, it is the manly white qualities of expansiveness, enterprise, courage, and control. The white male spirit achieves and maintains empire; the white female soul is associated with its demise.
Sandro, whose lover Anna has recently disappeared during a sailing excursion among the Aeolian Islands, arrives by train in the Sicilian city of Messina to find a journalist who may have information as to her whereabouts. A large, boisterous crowd of men swarms the street.
Sirens blaring, four jeeps heaving with police cut through the throng, trailed by a string of photographers and reporters. Shouldering his way through the scrum, Sandro discovers the source of the disturbance: a tall, glamorous young woman with dark hair and eyes whose tight- fitting dress has split a seam at the thigh. The glimpse of garter exposed by the tear has attracted the mob of male Sicilians. She also confesses interest in a film career.
As the police escort her from the scene and the onlookers leer, cheer, and jeer, the journalist tells Sandro that she is a prostitute with a price of 50, lire who moves 93 94 I Wandering Women from town to town and performs her sexuality in this manner so as to attract customers. The implication is clear to Claudia, and by her expression we sense her shame for her betrayal of Anna. She is seen by the men, and sees herself here, as a streetwalker.
The ultimate point of connection is the black garter on the white thigh of the streetwalking Gloria Perkins in Messina: the seam split open, the dark prop upon which modern female sexuality rests glimpsed, the tenuous balance between old and new social orders exposed. In this respect they were considered in the discourses of the time to reflect the modern woman of France and Italy, unburdened of the restrictive roles of daughter, sister, wife, or mother on the one hand, prostitute, kept woman, or femme fatale on the other, which Wandering Women 95 had previously demarcated her range of possibilities.
The imaging of women in European art cinema is much more fraught than the one I have too optimistically described above. Unlike neo-realism, the poverty portrayed is not economic or even social, but emotional, spiritual. Choices are vague or nonexistent. Slow to act, these characters tell all. The female characters of modern European cinema collectively present the image of a flaneuse engaged in a quest for meaning as she wanders the terrain of a changing Europe. The spaces she encounters in her strolls are by turns ancient and modern, transparent and opaque, threatening and benign, populated and empty.
The pace of her flanerie is the pace of the art film itself; the visual shocks she encounters are the shock cuts punctuating and structuring narrative sequences, she is the visualizing subject. But she is also an object in the narrative and in the landscapes and architectures she traverses.
How might one read her functions and placements in the cinema for which she is so clearly a trope? The new European cinemas thus arose in the postwar era as an almost simultaneous series of national responses to U.
Tellingly, both narratives achieve closure through the deaths of the French protagonists at the hands of the Americans. In such an economy art cinema plays out the tragedy of its own inevitable colonization by the forces of American capital and culture. As chapter 2 makes clear, there is more to be done with European art cinema than reiterate this position.
I will be making such a case. What to make of the simultaneous birth of modern European cinema and death of European colonialism? The first flickerings of the thoroughly modern female flaneur may be glimpsed in the women performers of the popular cinemas of France and Italy in the s. In both of these national-popular cinema traditions, women are addressed by and poised for modernity but have yet to become fully active participants in it.
The key transitional figure between these popular cinemas of the s and the new art cinemas of the s was Brigitte Bardot. In all of her films, but particularly in the one that made her an international superstar, Et Dieu By the decades turn the figure of the flaneuse would be pervasive in the new cinemas of France and Italy, and the national allegories she incarnates are complicated.
More frequently, it is a profound dislocation from the people who once were or could be close to her, signified spatially by an ultimately uninhabitable view of the modern European city. Rather than continuing to consider Hollywood as the generative source of art cinema, it is time to look elsewhere.
Colonial Cinematic Representation The rapidity with which European countries established their colonial empires in the late nineteenth century was more than matched by the rapidity with which they relinquished their colonies after World War II. In Europe ruled the world; two decades later, virtually all the former European colonies had become independent states.
The year was crucial in the history of decolonization. In March of that year, Morocco and Tunisia achieved independence. And in the autumn, a failed Franco-British campaign for control of the Suez Canal confirmed in the eyes of the world the inability of the major European powers to effect the course of events in their colonies, former or otherwise. At the close of , it was clear that the finale of the European empires was near.
Certainly, Italian cinema would seem by dint of its much smaller colonial interests to be less affected than its French counterpart. By it would be all but gone. But what of colonial cinematic representation in France during the years of decolonization? French film historical writing has tended toward two consenses.
For on the other hand, there seems to be little else. Colonial wars were doomed topics sujets maudits. The explanation lies. The two peak years for proscribing films were with fourteen films and ten films During the eight-year war with Algeria —62 , not a single film on the Algerian question was granted a visa.
In the s, films that tried to address this conflict, or the role of the army in any context, were again effectively blocked. Vautier is again a conspicuous presence, although Pierre Clement, Guy Chalon and Philippe Durand, and the Verite-Liberte collective receive mentions as well. She suffers and dies offscreen, elsewhere. Before its ban, Godard said the following about Le Petit soldat: The film should bear witness to the period.
Politics are talked about in it, but it has no political bias. My way of engaging myself was to say: the Nouvelle Vague is accused of showing nothing but people in bed; my characters will be active in politics and have no time for bed. Well, politics meant Algeria. But I had to deal with my own experience and my own feelings. I spoke of what concerned me, a Parisian in , belonging to no party.
And what concerned me was the problem of war and its moral repercussions. One is more compelled to find truth inside oneself than outside. The little soldier is searching for truth, he is searching for what is most important: that is to say not to be defeated, not to be bitter, to continue being active, to feel free.
The reinsertion of a former member of the contingent into a rapidly modernizing society provides the film with a focus for existential reflections on a subject out of time and out of place in a hazy present. This film is constructed as a highly fragmented circulation among four characters in Boulogne over the course of a fortnight, from Saturday, 29 September, to Sunday, 14 October The war is thus encapsulated, here as in Le Petit soldat, in the absent figure of a dead woman.
The jarring, rapid cutting in Muriel suggests not merely a fragmented reality but also a confrontation between two pasts, each of which is capable of being present only in relation to the next. Like its characters the city is centerless; it has no present.
Its construction is carried out without incident, according to plan and on schedule. And yet it does not fall down: it remains standing on the hill and from all exterior appearances is perfectly sound. This building, like the characters of Muriel, like Boulogne, like France, is defined in relation to its past and its future: it has no present, it is modern and obsolete at the same time.
When The Battle of Algiers was awarded the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival the French delegation walked out in protest, and the film was not granted certification in France until While neither the first nor the last word on the Algerian war, this film stands in Anglo-American film studies as the key reference text.
Its reversals of European colonial cinematic representation have been unpacked by others, and I will not duplicate their arguments here. They look at themselves as they put on an enemy identity, ready to perform their national task but with no apparent vindictiveness toward their future victims. Just perform the following steps when you encounter ZIP files with errors: 1. Download the utility. Install the software on your PC. Extract the archive. Select the corrupted items and press Open.
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