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We obtained behavioral data with the use of focal animal and all-occurrence sampling methods [ 31 , 32 ]. We followed a previously proposed approach [ 2 ] to include behavioral events as intraspecific visual displays into our analyses. A behavioral event was considered to be a visual display when it met the following criteria: 1 may provide a visual cue during an intraspecific interaction; 2 must be redundant, conspicuous, and stereotyped; and 3 may likely provoke an immediate response by the receiver benefiting the sender.

From our behavioral data, we counted the number of behaviors executed. We identified visual displays of Hylodes japi based on reviews of anuran visual displays [ 2 , 21 ]. The behaviors of three of the five new visual displays herein described toes posture, head bobbing, and head snaking were previously mentioned in literature [ 25 , 33 — 35 ], but not included in the reviews of visual communication in anurans.

We recorded male advertisement and territorial calls with a Marantz digital recorder PMD coupled to a Sennheiser external unidirectional microphone ME positioned approximately 1. Courtship calls were obtained exclusively from video recordings. All calls were recorded with a sampling frequency rate of At the time of each recording, air and water temperatures were measured. We analyzed the data with the use of the software Raven Pro v1.

We described calls except for the advertisement call which had previously been described [ 26 ] by analyzing six parameters [ 36 ]: call duration s , intercall interval s , number of notes per call, note duration s , internote interval s , and dominant frequency range kHz. We inferred the functions of each call according to the context in which they were emitted. We performed an analysis of limb and vocal sac use in signaling towards intruder males, particularly during short-range signaling.

We recorded which side of the body which limb and which vocal sac was used in signaling by resident males within three different situations: with intruder male at the left side of the resident male, in front of the resident male, or at the right side of the resident male. For this analysis we excluded those signals that could not be produced with using only one side of the body, i.

Visual display categories are provided below. The communication of Hylodes japi is based on visual, acoustic, and tactile signals. These signals are more easily observed when densities of males are high, making intraspecific interactions more frequent. We observed males calling in all months except October. However, the breeding season occurs at the end of the rainy season February—April , when we observed males calling in chorus and performing visual displays.

During this period we observed intense male-male interactions and competition. We recorded pair formation, courtship, mating, and oviposition only between February and April as well. We recorded three courtship events: two during the day and h and one at night, before sunrise h ; the first ended with rejection by the female, whereas the other two resulted in oviposition see [ 26 ]. Hylodes japi was found to exhibit three diurnal peaks of calling activity: in the beginning of the day, starting one hour before sunrise between and h ; in the middle of the day between and h ; and in the afternoon, until one hour before sunset between and h.

Males strongly decrease calling activities after sunset, however, during the breeding period at least a few individuals call sporadically all night long. Males adopt and defend as territories land areas on the margins of fast-flowing streams as well as emergent rocks, trunks, branches, and leaves located on the margins or in the middle of these streams, for use as calling and courtship sites, and for feeding activity see [ 26 ].

Males and females perform rich repertoires of visual displays during intraspecific communication. We observed 68 H. The advertisement context involves nonaggressive behaviors when only one male is calling or when two neighboring males are interacting acoustically calling in antiphony without territory invasion.

When a resident male identifies a conspecific intruder inside his territory he immediately changes his behavior, most likely in defense of his territory boundaries, which we refer to as the long-range agonistic context. The short-range agonistic context is observed when two males are closely interacting, even without physical contact, with a resident male defending his territory against an intruder male.

Finally, we considered the courtship context to be from the moment that a male perceives a female inside his territory to the moment that the couple enters an underwater constructed chamber to deposit eggs. Males perform visual displays during advertisement, agonistic, and courtship contexts. Five behaviors toes posture, two-armed impulse, head bobbing, head snaking, and truncated walking did not fit into any previously described display category, so they are described herein as new visual displays for frogs.

All visual displays performed by H. A Toes posture; from resting position above; frontal view raising feet and holding feet up for some seconds, exposing dorsal surfaces of toes below; frontal view. B Two-armed impulse; from resting position above; lateral view boosting the whole body forward by impulsion via an up and down movement with both arms simultaneously, moving the body forward and raising the anterior part of the body.

C Head bobbing; from resting position above; lateral view performing a single down or up jerky movement with the head without lifting either hands or feet off the ground nor moving the body; it is performed preceding calls by males. D Head snaking; rapidly approaching a conspecific female, raising the head up above; lateral view of the couple moving it to alternate sides eight times four times each side , in a snakelike motion below; dorsal view of the male ; it is performed with the throat at the level and in front of the female snout, with the frogs being very close to each other, but without touching.

E Truncated walking dorsal view ; lowering the body and walking ahead slowly, with alternation of legs and arms; it is performed with a moving and stopping pattern; left arm is moved concomitantly with right leg and vice-versa. Hylodes japi also exhibits a diverse acoustic repertoire that, besides the advertisement call see [ 26 ] , is composed of three other male call types: peep Fig 2A , squeal Fig 2B , and courtship calls Fig 2C.

The peep and squeal are territorial calls and both have a courtship function. A Spectrogram top and waveform bottom of a peep call composed of three notes. B Spectrogram top and waveform bottom of a squeal call. C Spectrogram top and waveform bottom of a courtship call composed of five notes. Peep and squeal calls recorded on 15 April and courtship call on 6 March Peep calls are composed of frequency modulated peep notes. Peep call duration is 0.

Calls are emitted at intervals of 1. Each call is composed of 1—4 notes 2. Note duration is 0. Notes given at intervals of 0. The dominant frequency occurs in the third harmonic and ranges from 3. Peep and squeal calls can be emitted in combination, with a peep preceding a squeal call. The duration of squeal calls is 0.

Squeals are emitted at intervals of 0. Notes have the dominant frequency ranging from 3. Duration of courtship calls is 0. Each call has 4—6 notes 5. Each call is composed of frequency modulated notes, usually rising until the middle of the call and then lowering at the end. Dominant frequency is in the third harmonic and ranges from 3.

Males defend territories as breeding sites calling and courtship. When a male perceives the presence of a conspecific male or female inside his territory, he readily increases emission of peep and squeal calls, while also intensifying the production of visual displays e. Of the 65 males observed, 28 were engaged in advertisement context, 10 in long-range agonistic, 24 in short-range agonistic, and three in courtship.

Males exhibited a higher proportion of acoustic signals than visual displays in all behavioral contexts, except for short-range agonistic, in which visual and acoustic signals were almost equally common Fig 3. We also found differences in call types emitted according to each social context Fig 4. During advertisement, males basically emit advertisement calls by inflating both vocal sacs. The advertisement call is the least emitted acoustic signal in long-range agonistic contexts, but has almost the same proportion as squeal call in short-range agonistic contexts.

In long-range and short-range agonistic contexts, the peep call is the vocalization most frequently emitted. Although only emitted during courtship, the courtship call is the least frequent call type within that context.

During male-female close interactions, peep and squeal calls are most frequent. Values on top of each bar are the number of observations. There are also differences among the four distinct contexts in the visual displays used by males Table 2 , as shown by the following examples. Foot flagging is a visual advertisement display, but it was also recorded in the other three contexts.

Arm waving is performed by males with exclusive agonistic function and by females with exclusive courtship function. Throat display is a significant visual display for short-range agonistic and courtship behaviors, despite being executed in advertisement and long-range agonistic contexts see S4 Movie. Head snaking is used by males only for a specific moment during courtship; when the male is leading the female to dive into the water.

Hylodes japi males use acoustic and visual signals to maintain territories, thereby avoiding fights. Most likely, fights happen when visual and acoustic signals do not work in deterring territorial invasions.

We observed a physical confrontation between two males, apparently disputing the same territory. In March 24 , two H. The frogs were close to each other 50 cm apart and using aggressive visual and acoustic signals, when one of them jumped over to the rock of the other. The individual that jumped was clearly larger males were not measured and pushed the smaller individual with his snout and chest using forward and backward movements, during which both males were emitting squeal calls.

The smaller male apparently tried to stay on the rock, however, it was pushed off and into the water. That pushing fight lasted about 50 min. The smaller male tried to climb up onto the rock again, simultaneously pushing his opponent using his snout and body. They kept in that dispute for 10 more min until the larger male again pushed the smaller male back into the water, thereby winning the contest. During our study we observed three couples in courtship for a total of 53 min. Although these courtship events were only partially observed, put together they provide the entire sequence of behaviors.

Hylodes japi courtship is complex and comprises visual, acoustic, and tactile signals see S5 Movie. Males call throughout the courtship, alternating among advertisement, peep, squeal, and courtship calls. During courtship, we observed males performing visual displays using toes, feet, hands, legs, arms, vocal sacs, head, and body. Females also performed visual displays, however, only with the movements of hands, arms, and body. The complete courtship of H. These steps are described in detail below.

Hylodes japi female touching the dorsum of the conspecific male with her gular region during courtship drawn based on images captured by video recording. Male is calling only with one vocal sac inflated, the one closest to the female left vocal sac , also showing the visual component of his bright whitish vocal sacs. Courtship calls are emitted only during the acceptance step of courtship.

From a video recording of one of the three courtship events observed, we quantified signals displayed by females and which arms where used to perform arm lifting or arm waving analyzed together. Percentages of courtship calls emitted by the male when the female performs bimodal signals visual plus tactile communication and pure tactile signals, in Hylodes japi. See text for details. Furthermore, we observed two situations where males were calling partially submerged in the stream so that their inflated vocal sacs were in contact with water surface during emission of advertisement calls.

In one of those situations, the male apparently perceived the distorted sound that was being produced and, during the intervals between his advertisement calls, experimented with new calling positions, and tried to get out of the water, apparently looking for a better position to call until producing the regular call without the contact of his vocal sacs with the water surface S1 Movie.

We also audibly observed that the males are able to control the intensity of their calls, sometimes clearly lowering vocalization volume during short-range agonistic interactions or courtship interactions. In addition, males apparently have control over which vocal sac they will use during acoustic and visual signaling. When calling or performing the throat display, the male chooses to use both vocal sacs simultaneously or only one of them individually.

However, the advertisement calls of H. We conduct an analysis of limb and vocal sac usage in short-range signaling to intruder males see Materials and Methods and provide our results in Fig 7. When resident males decide how to emit calls or perform displays that can be signaled by both, left, or right vocal sacs or limbs, they do it based on conspecific receptor position, during close-agonistic interactions see S4 Movie.

Hylodes japi exhibits sophisticated intraspecific communication involving a rich repertoire of visual displays and acoustic signals, which is even more complex during courtship when individuals also include tactile signaling. Hylodes japi is cryptic, with brown and reddish brown dorsal colorations, which resemble the background and substrates where it lives.

However, when observed from frontal view as they are observed by conspecific individuals , their cream-colored venter contrasts with the dark background. Similar dorsal and ventral body color patterns are found in other members of the family Hylodidae e. While dorsal coloration works as camouflage for predators, a contrasting ventral pattern can serve to convey intraspecific visual cues, in particular for visual displays such as body lowering, upright posture, and head snaking.

These three displays are associated with, respectively, subordination, territoriality, and female stimulation, suggesting that ventral body color may convey visual messages during intraspecific interactions. During body lowering, a male hides his cream-colored venter, which can be interpreted as a submissive display, consequently avoiding agonistic behaviors and fights by expressing non-aggressive intentions during short-range territorial interactions with conspecific males [ 2 ].

Upright posture and head snaking are visual displays that convey, respectively, aggressive and courtship messages via the exposure of a venter with contrasting coloration. Movements and postures, alone or in combination, are additional conspicuous traits that can shape visual displays [ 2 , 7 ]. Head snaking is a stereotypic movement intensified by the cream ventral coloration.

Foot and hand shaking, arm lifting, head bobbing, body jerking, and jump display are examples of visual displays that are conspicuous due to movements. Leg stretching, two-armed impulse, and truncated walking are conspicuous due to the association of movements and postures. Body raising is a conspicuous display due to posture. Toe trembling, toe flagging, and foot flagging are composed of movements that are made more evident by the contrasting bright whitish-silver color of toe tips.

In toes posture, the posture adopted by the male also exposes the contrasting color of toe tips. Arm waving, performed by H. In Hylodes , arm waving is performed with a quick movement, producing a flashing signal by passing the brown arm in front of the bright whitish-silver area on ventral half of lateral side of head S2 Movie. Likewise, movement and color associations for visual signaling have been observed in other frog genera. Brachycephalus ephippium family Brachycephalidae and Atelopus zeteki family Bufonidae are diurnal frogs that also perform arm waving, however, in these cases the display is somewhat different, being performed slowly by passing yellow arms in front of their black eyes [ 39 , 40 ].

Variations of the same visual display including variations in the combinations of colors, movements, and postures can be identified, and are more apparent among different phylogenetic groups of frog. Throat display is another case of visual signaling involving movement and color association in H. Throat display is described as movements of the bright, whitish vocal sacs, which also produces flashing signals. It has been demonstrated that frogs are voluntarily able to control their vocal sac e.

Here we add that H. Likewise, it is known that frogs are voluntarily able to choose which limb will be used for signaling e. Recently, male Micrixalus kottigeharensis previously Micrixalus saxicola were found to perform foot-flagging, directing the displays toward the interacting male [ 42 ]. In addition to vocal sac control and orientation, our findings suggest that H.

When a male is controlling and directing his signals, there is most likely a trade-off between energy demands and success in transferring information. It is likely that signal control improves and optimizes individual performance of males.

Potentially, similar results can be expected for other visually signaling frogs from different continents. We observed that vocal sac control is executed either when performing a visual display throat display or when emitting acoustic signals peep, squeal, and courtship calls , with the exception of the advertisement calls which are always emitted with use of both vocal sacs; S2 Movie. Most likely there were not any evolutionary pressures for the development of vocal sac control to direct visual signals associated with advertisement call.

This particular call type is usually emitted in advertisement contexts, when a male is alone within his territory i. Another possibility is that, most likely, advertisement calls need to be produced at higher intensities and both vocal sacs are used to maximize the radiating surface of the frog. During advertisement call emission usually a long-range signal with the dual functions of territorial maintenance and female attraction , the acoustic component may be more important than the visual component.

The signal is purely acoustic if the receptor cannot see the emitter; from the moment that the receptor sees the emitter the signal becomes bimodal, with the addition of visual information to the acoustical information by the pulsating of vocal sacs; e. The bright vocal sacs may act as visual cues either when males are performing the pure visual display throat display, a unimodal visual communication or when males are calling.

During calling, color and movement of the vocal sacs visual components and the call sound acoustic component may act concomitantly as a fixed composite signal sensu [ 47 ] in bimodal communication. It is reasonable to suppose that color and movement of the vocal sacs are not only an epiphenomenon of the acoustic signaling, but they do help with detection and discrimination of the emitter within the complex background noise of the habitat [ 45 , 48 ].

We report two visual displays performed by the female during the courtship behavior that are usually integrated with tactile signaling: arm lifting and arm waving. Tactile and visual components of the movements performed by the female act together in synergy, working as a bimodal signal.

This is the second evidence of bimodal communication in H. As with visual-acoustic communication, if the male receptor cannot see the visual component, the female signal is purely tactile; if the male sees her movement during the tactile-visual signaling, the signal becomes bimodal. The tactile component of the female signal is by itself enough to trigger the male courtship call. However, when tactile and visual components are combined as a unique signal, they are more likely to succeed in male stimulation, with three-times more positive male replies.

We conclude that movement is not only an epiphenomenon of tactile signaling, but rather a visual component that amplifies the tactile component during female-male communication, with an increase in the accuracy of the transferred message [ 47 , 49 , 50 ]. Our study is the first to describe the combination of visual and tactile signals in the courtship behavior of frogs. By comparing our data with that in the literature, we recognize similarities in communication among species in the genus Hylodes.

Repertoire and functions of acoustic signals are alike among H. Tactile stimuli executed by males and females are usually observed during courtship in other Hylodes species as well e. Current data concerning intraspecific communication suggests that there is a general behavioral pattern in the genus Hylodes.

Moreover, these three communication modes visual, acoustic, and tactile are also recorded as courtship behaviors of other frog families in which the male leads the female to an oviposition site. Some examples are: Allobates femoralis Aromobatidae; [ 54 ] , Ameerega braccata Dendrobatidae; [ 55 ] , Aplastodiscus arildae Hylidae; [ 8 ] , Aplastodiscus leucopygius Hylidae; [ 56 ] , Aplastodiscus perviridis Hylidae; [ 57 ] , Leptodactylus fuscus Leptodactylidae; [ 58 ] , and Leptodactylus mystacinus Leptodactylidae; [ 59 ].

During the leading steps of the courtship, Ameerega braccata and species of Aplastodiscus , for example, show the same mate positioning that we observed for H. Studies exploring potential complexities in intraspecific communication of Neotropical frog species are appropriate, especially concerning multimodal compositions.

From 46 species currently recognized for the family Hylodidae [ 60 ], ten species are known to perform visual signals including the species studied in the present work; Table 3. There are data on visual communication for two Crossodactylus and eight Hylodes species, and no information on Megaelosia communication.

It is reasonable to believe that the gap in data concerning communication of hylodids is a consequence at least partial of their wary and secretive behaviors, making studies difficult, be it in the field or in captivity [ 2 , 61 ]; present study. Among hylodids, the currently known repertoire of visual displays is most complex in H. In fact, Hylodes japi has one of the most diverse repertoires of visual displays known within the order Anura.

The five new visual displays that we described and categorized here correspond to We trust that our results on visual communication are not an exception among hylodids and anurans in general , but a consequence of the time invested to understand the behaviors. Among hylodids, the most studied species have more diverse repertoires, such as C. For Hylodes species, some behaviors, such as arm lifting and arm waving, are only distinguishable via video analysis. Moreover, other visual displays are performed only during specific situations, making them difficult to observe because they are rarely executed.

Head snaking, for example, was recorded only twice among all studies on hylodids; during courtship, once in H. The accepted male is the only individual that performs head snaking and only during courtship. From the set of information presented here, it is plausible to expect that the complexity observed in the visual communication of H. Complexity of the visual communication system may be a pattern for the Brazilian torrent frogs Hylodes species , and most likely as a phylogenetic trait of the genus.

Neotropical torrent frogs i. Behavioral patterns tend to be similar within families and within genera [ 2 ]. The shift to diurnal activity facilitated the evolution of visual communication in frogs [ 2 ]. Authors have suggested that visual repertoires seem to be more complex in species that breed at noisy streams and even more complex in species that breed and feed at the same terrestrial sites. They also suggest that future investigations of less-studied species could reveal a distinct scenario.

Indeed, even with several new records of visual displays being performed by different species, the superfamily Dendrobatoidea aromobatids and dendrobatids still exhibits one of the most complex visual communication systems among frogs. However, comparatively, hylodids are starting to exhibit an even more elevated level of complexity, as observed in the repertoires of H.

It is conceivable to expect the occurrence of complex visual communication modulated by the environment in fast-flowing stream dwelling diurnal frogs, such as hylodids e. In comparison with Brazilian torrent frogs Hylodes species , other diurnal torrent frogs in the world, such as Indian frogs Micrixalus species Micrixalidae; [ 19 , 22 , 69 — 71 ] and Bornean frogs Staurois species Ranidae; [ 18 , 23 , 72 , 73 ] , present similar visual displays.

These three tropical genera Hylodes , Micrixalus , and Staurois share similarities in breeding habitats, daytime breeding habits, reproductive modes, conspicuous visual displays e. Since Hylodes , Micrixalus , and Staurois are from distinct phylogenetic groups [ 74 — 76 ] and distinct parts of the world, their behavioral similarities most likely are convergences due to similar ecological pressures. However, it is hard to do any kind of statement about homologies given the lack of behavioral knowledge for several intermediate linages.

Lastly, in recent years, new windows have been opened concerning the evolution of communication in frogs by the study of other fascinating communication modes, which have been uncovered. For example, water wave communication in the basal frogs of the genus Bombina [ 77 , 78 ], chemical communication in the basal species Leiopelma hamiltoni [ 79 , 80 ], pure ultrasonic communication in the frog Huia cavitympanum , the first record for a non-mammalian vertebrate [ 81 ], and vibrational communication in the arboreal frog Agalychnis callidryas [ 82 ].

Among frogs, all of these new communication channels mentioned above, as well as the control and directionality of the vocal sacs such as observed in the present study , and even new integration between distinct communication modes such as visual-tactile bimodal signaling in H. Calls recorded on 15—17 April Male seems to perceive his distorted calls being produced when his inflated vocal sacs touch the water surface.

He experiments with new positions to call out of the water. Apparently, the male looks for better positions, until producing the regular call. Recorded on 12 April Male emits advertisement, peep, and squeal calls. Advertisement calls are always emitted by using both vocal sacs.

Peep and squeal calls can be emitted with the use of both vocal sacs simultaneously or only with a single vocal sac. While calling, male performs visual displays arm lifting, arm waving, head bobbing, body jerking, and truncated walking. Slowing the movie down rate 0.

Recorded on 8 March Male performs toe trembling, toe flagging, toes posture, and foot flagging, while emitting advertisement calls. I In long and short-range agonistics contexts, the movie shows males executing throat displays pulsating the vocal sacs alternating with peep and squeal calls preceding advertisement calls, or combined with another visual display e.

Recorded on 7—8 March II In a short-range agonistic context, resident male emits peep and squeal calls, with vocal sac inflation directed toward a conspecific intruder male which is in body lowering posture. Recorded on 26 March That couple position is kept during the acceptance courtship step. Then, we can observe the male emitting peep and squeal calls with only one vocal sac inflated, the one nearer the female his left vocal sac , demonstrating the visual component of his bright whitish vocal sacs.

The movie is slowed down for better observation rate 0. Finally, once male and female reach the fast-flowing stream margin, we can see the exact moment when, while maintaining physical contact with the female, the male slightly moves his body forward, consequently moving the female body as well; then the male dives followed by the female, marking the beginning of the underwater part of the courtship leading to the oviposition site.

We thank Kelly R. Zamudio, Harry W. Greene, Cynthia P. Prado, Paulo C. Pombal Jr. We thank members of the Zamudio laboratory for discussion and suggestions on earlier drafts of our manuscript. We also thank anonymous referees for comments and suggestions in the first version of the manuscript.

We appreciate the contributions of Adriana T. Grisolia during field activities, and the assistance and hospitality of Ronaldo Pereira and Mr. We also thank Erik Wild for improving our use of written English. Performed the experiments: FPS. Analyzed the data: FPS.

Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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Outlook for next 2 years. In abilify co is in market share preservation mode. It is taking care of bigger customers and making them stick. Smaller customers are being addressed by newer players who have entered late. Abilify used to be a 30 dollar tablet for innovator. Dahej nearing completion. Dahej facility helps co in increasing supply and market share in existing products.

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Zyg sales 10 crores and profit more than 50 lacs. Co is optimistic about Crestor whereas in Viagra they didnt seem confident. But they already have Sildenafil launched in US markets for off label Uses mainly in pulmonary hypertension where it si seeing good traction. At a later date even launches in US and Europe may be considered.

Initial knee jerk reactions are often difficult to decipher. I recall even after stellar q1 results for torrent stock corrected next day and then after some consolidation took off. I think one of the reasons for the correction could be concerns about FY 17 and beyond as the pipeline of products in US for torrent is perceived to be not so great. But my take is that after listening to the concall the co seems to doing quite well in the base business in the US and with increased shipments from the Dahej facility, the base business might get additional filip.

Valuing the company based on fy 16 numbers would not be the right way. In fact its very difficult to value a company where we know bcos of off and on US blockbuster molecules earnings will be lumpy. Crestor is a quite a big molecule for fy They also mentioned in next 2 years there will be about 20 launches of which will are very lucrative launches with limited competition.

The increased filings will start from q1fy So from fy17, we will see increased filings with increasing complexity of ANDA filed like cream and ointments and some would that would require clinical trials too. Oncology green field plant is another positive. They would also be launching many first timers in india with innovative dosage and combinations I think this is ajanta like strategy and then replicate this india model in brazil. It is really testing the patiency… 2 back to back blockbuster results…why Mr.

Market is ignoring the last Q1 and Q2 results… is market expecting that those are one offs. Why are u frustrated? If u want to sell a stock then only u want higher prices. I would be happy if Torrent pharma keeps range bound till the time I decide to sell it. Its only then that I want it to go up.

If the financials keep playing out the prices will inevitably follow. Markets often take a long long time to accord proper valuations to some companies. Case in point is Ajanta Pharma where inspite of stellar growth figures back in period the stock remained confined to PE ranges of 6 to I have been a silent reader in this forum and trying to contribute wherever possible with my little knowledge.

I am really thankful to all the senior members for sharing their wisdom. In particular I went through your portfolio thread and I believe you should now be writing a book on investment if not already. What would be your take in the right order of long term value creation starting highest - Torrent, Ajanta and Anuh. Particularly interested in the growth potential. Anything else that you would suggest to look into?

I am also keen on MPS though I may have missed the train earlier. Regarding pharma stocks I am not too sure at this stage which co from among the ones u mentioned is going to create the max wealth. But most of the US facing pharma companies who dont have regulatory hurdles are sitting pretty and are on track to make decent gains in next few years.

Regarding your comments about missing the bus, in case of the stock you are tracking or the girl you are wooing, its never too late to take the plunge. Any website to refer to, for the numbers on UK sales and approvals? Dr Reddys and Camber hetero have been asked to stop shipments of nexium bcos of the purple color of their tablets.

This leaves Teva, Mylan and torrent in the fray for the nexium molecule. Nexium is also a big molecule with few players. Looks like torrent has had another piece of good luck at the cost of other players in a big molecule. One needs to see how torrent exploits the opportunity it is presented along with a piece of good luck.

HYDERABAD: The stipulations increasingly being made by China while extending financial aid to several developing economies to buy medicines produced by their manufacturers have of late begun denting the exports of Indian drugs to these countries.

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Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation.

Housos dvdrip torrent Seidel B. Visual display repertoires tend to be complex in diurnal species that breed in noisy environments, such as Hylodes asper from Brazil family Hylodidae; e. It has been demonstrated that frogs are voluntarily able to control their vocal sac e. Mol Phylogenet Evol. When calling or performing the throat display, the male chooses to use both vocal sacs simultaneously or continue reading one of them individually. By comparing our data with that in the literature, we recognize similarities in communication among species in the genus Hylodes. The bright vocal sacs may act as visual cues either when males are performing the pure visual display throat display, a unimodal visual communication or when males are calling.
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Frankenstein 1994 torrent Lingnau R. Duellman W E, Trueb L. Sometimes the male also jumped towards the female. We observed a physical confrontation between two males, apparently disputing the same territory. They kept in that dispute for 10 more min until the larger male again pushed the smaller male back into the water, thereby winning the contest. Hi Hitesh, I have been a silent reader in this forum and trying to contribute wherever possible with my little knowledge. The species is rheophilic, has territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior, as do other members of the family Hylodidae.
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