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The quantitative study analyses differences in subtitle numbers, subtitle distribution and duration, number of characters per subtitle, number of subtitles. A selection of images and a brief history of Australians in the Greece and Crete In March , British support became a reality when a military.

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In the first, she analyses the levels of reduction in the Greek subtitle versions of film segments from 12 films belonging to different genres. In the next part she looks into DVD versions in different European languages and concludes that subtitle versions from traditionally subtitling countries contain fewer subtitles compared to the ones from traditionally dubbing countries. The only exception being Portugal, as credits and songs are subtitled unlike other subtitling practices.

Of course, since the researcher could not analyse all language versions in- depth, research findings are restricted to comparing total numbers of subtitles. Georgakopoulou assumes that that the difference in subtitles entails a difference in wordiness ibid Methods used in the study 1. Sources of norms As seen in section 1. Toury suggests two major sources for the discovery of translational norms, namely textual and extratextual.

Moreover, he regards normative statements as by-products, which, being partial and biased, should be treated with caution. There may even be contradictions between these statements and actual behaviour. Texts by themselves do not provide sufficient evidence of norms. There is no obvious starting point — textual or extratextual — it rather depends on the case.

Norms as found in extratextual sources can be explicit or implicit, in other words recorded or not recorded. A review of recorded norms can be found in section 2. Implicit or not recorded norms are found in statements by the people involved in the activity. The present study aims to discover these implicit norms, using a questionnaire as a method to achieve this Chapter 4.

A corpus of subtitled films is used as a textual source of indicators of norms Chapter 5. For the present comparative analysis the texts are broken down into two levels. First, the verbal part, utterances and subtitles, needs to be extracted, and the utterances turned into a written form.

The second level of breaking down the subtitle versions into segments is also straight forward, as the subtitles are distinct units marked by in and out times. After studying a large number of such pairs, I look for regular patterns of mappings. A subtitle appears for a temporal interval, during which one or more utterances are heard.

This means that this subtitle can only be mapped to the specific utterance s. The same goes for mapping different subtitled versions. If two sets of TT subtitles, one in language A and one language B, are aligned with the ST dialogues, the result can be visualised as a table with three columns: the ST utterances, the subtitles in language A and the subtitles in language B. The process of aligning the two sets of subtitles for each film brings different types of mappings, which could occur between any two subtitle versions in language A and language B.

These mappings are outlined in Table 1. Types of Subtitle Mappings Explanation One-to-one One subtitle A corresponding to one subtitle B One-to-many One subtitle A corresponding to two three, four, etc subtitles B Many-to-one Two three, four, etc subtitles A corresponding to one subtitle B Table 1: Types of subtitle mappings The one-to-many type of mappings can be subcategorized to one-to-two, one-to- three, one-to-four and so forth, and vice-versa.

The mappings expected to be found most frequently in the films under study are the one-to-one, one-to-two and two-to- one mappings represented in Figure 4. There are numerous possibilities of combining subtitle-mappings with the types of subtitles. Figure 5 presents some random combinations of subtitle types and mappings. This term has been devised to dinstinguish these instances from cases where there is no subtitle because there is no utterance or other verbal element in the ST. The combinations of subtitle mappings and subtitle types that affect the total number of subtitles in each of the ten films under analysis are described in Table 2 along with their symbols.

These symbols are used in the charts which present cumulative results in Chapter 6. Minute: Hana and a wounded soldier are on the train. Wounded soldier: Would you kiss me? Hana: No, I'll get you some tea. But mapping two different subtitle sets is not always clear-cut.

In some cases there is overlapping, in others mapping is not one-to-two but one-to-three. In the subtitled films under study these cases are the exceptions and, since I am looking at regularities, it does not seem necessary to analyse them. After all, they would not provide statistically analysable figures. Cases of overlapping mappings are shown in Example 6. Minute: After the first sequence, we are taken some years back. Tally gets her first job at W. Miami, the only TV station that responded when receiving her demo tape.

It is the first time she goes to the station, she is quite nervous and insecure. English utterances Ileana: So, you're Sally. Ileana: That's Sally with an "S", right? Tally: Do you think l'm overdressed? Looking at this example one might be led to the assumption that it would be better to map subtitle lines instead of subtitles.

In this specific example it would be a straight forward task, since each Spanish line can be mapped to one Greek line, and the total number of lines is equal. In other words, four Spanish lines correspond to four Greek lines. However, breaks within subtitles are not always done the same way in the two subtitle versions, so the problem remains.

Not in the least. Spanish subtitles Greek subtitles Mapping - No, en absoluto. This example is indicative of how pauses and shot changes are treated differently in each version. In the Spanish version for every shot change there is a new subtitle, whereas in Greek the spotting is determined by the requirement for a full sentence in each subtitle. This issue is further discussed in section 5. Defining temporal relations between utterances and subtitles As we have seen, utterances and subtitles constitute temporal intervals, i.

In order to study the relationship between them, I have borrowed a representation from the discipline of Artificial Intelligence, regarding the basic possible temporal relations between two intervals. He describes a list of thirteen basic possible relations, presented in Figure 6.

What I am interested in is not the exact duration of utterances and subtitles, but their relations, e. Others consider that a subtitle should start a fragment of a second after the utterance this is further discussed in section 2. They are presented in Table 5. These of course include relations with no overlapping between utterances and subtitles and they are presented in Table 6. Sampling within texts The process of establishing the temporal relation between the subtitles and their corresponding utterances in all the films under study Chapter 5 cannot be done automatically and is especially laborious.

So, only a sample of subtitles from each film is analysed. Representative sampling requires a sufficient sample size and a careful choice of samples. This technique was considered the most effective for this study because of the nature of the target population, i. Given this lack of uniformity in distribution, the clusters should not be established according to the number of subtitles but according to the duration of the film.

This procedure can be better explained with a specific film as an example. The English Patient lasts minutes and has 1, Spanish subtitles and Greek ones. The film is divided into 10 equal parts of 16 minutes each. Consequently, the first 14 Spanish subtitles appearing in each part are chosen to be studied and the first 10 Greek ones respectively.

Qualitative research and questionnaires According to Silverman , there are two main schools of social science, associated with very different ways of research. One of the approaches is positivism, which seeks to test correlations between variables and discover laws using quantitative methods. The other approach is interpretive social science which is often concerned with observation and description as well as with generating hypotheses using qualitative methods. Interviews are commonly used in both methodologies, but in a different way.

There are two kinds of questionnaires, comprising either multiple-choice questions or open- ended questions, and it is considered that there is a preference for one or the other, depending on the approach. Multiple-choice questions e. According to positivism, interview data give access to facts about the world and the primary issue is to generate valid and reliable data. Their analysis is simply a matter of counting and grouping different answers.

Their preparation is more laborious, since the multiple choices have to be carefully formulated according to the presuppositions of what the typical responses will be. The researcher, in other words, has specific hypotheses about the questions and answers. The danger, obviously, is that there may be more possibilities than the ones the researcher had fixed.

The other disadvantage is the mere existence of answers from which to choose. Multiple-choice questions are considered more appropriate for the eliciting of factual data rather than of opinions. The method of open-ended questions is more flexible. Their analysis is more difficult and time-consuming, which discourages researchers from using them in large samples. From a qualitative point of view, where the number of the interviewees is restricted, this problem can be overcome.

The subjective data coming from these questions cannot be analysed without taking into consideration the profile of the interviewees. Their background can be retrieved through multiple-choice questions, since factual data, such as years of experience, educational background or working conditions can be easily formulated in multiple options to choose from. These data will hopefully be of help in the analysis of the results, as correlations can be made between factual and subjective data in order to find possible explanations for the findings.

Definition of concepts Chapter 2. Definition of concepts Research in translation has often borrowed concepts and methods from other sciences experimentation, search for laws. As mentioned previously, translation is viewed here as communication, a social phenomenon.

The logical consequence of such a viewpoint is to study this phenomenon within the social sciences, which will provide the necessary tools and concepts for research. At the outset, it would seem useful to clarify what is meant by theory here. Chesterman provides us with an account of the meanings theory has been given and the various conflicting views about what a theory of translation should look like. Within this concept, a theory which cannot be falsified, is not an empirical one, nor a scientific one.

This metaphor can be a valuable conceptual tool, as it gives a view of what translation is, but it cannot be proved or falsified. Thus, the term theory will be kept to refer to the basic concepts underlying the perspective from which a phenomenon is viewed.

These basic concepts may prove more or less useful but may not be falsified. What research attempts to test is one or several hypotheses and not a theory. Definition of concepts We have already looked at the hypotheses, the general approach adopted and the methods used in this study. What is needed before embarking on the investigation is to discuss the explanatory concepts and to define the object of study. I start from the definition of the audiovisual text AV text and its subcategory, the film text, continue with audiovisual translation AVT and its different modes, to arrive at the specific mode of subtitling.

This review will be used as a springboard for the questionnaire and the film analysis. Non-communicative texts are treated as non-texts. Her definition also accounts for a road sign, a conversation, or a film dialogue, all of which are communicative occurrences. An increasingly accepted term used academically to refer to films, television shows, series, and documentaries is audiovisual AV texts. Their special characteristics and the factors that differentiate them from other texts can best be seen within a typology.

Typologies play an essential role in gaining scientific knowledge and understanding key variables of different phenomena. Organising objects or concepts in categories is also economical, as certain concepts which apply to one of the constituents of the category, can apply to all the rest. The parameters that establish the division of the elements are chosen according to the purpose and the use of the classification.

Various text typologies11 have been proposed within translation studies, from different angles and serving different purposes. Definition of concepts operative. At the same time she specifies that multi-medial texts do not form a separate text type at the same level as the other three, since a multi-medial text can have elements of the informative, the expressive or the operative type. These relationships are presented in the form of a diagram with six levels from most general level A to the most particular level F.

These are only a narrow selection of basic text-types and there are many other text-types, along with numerous hybrid forms. Even though this approach is very important for the development of translation studies, the parameters for the classification of the texts are not quite clear.

Film is placed in the diagram together with stage translation, as an afterthought it would seem, with no further comment on its specificity. Zabalbeascoa b argues that this is due to the fact that Snell-Hornby classifies films as text-types and not as textual modes. Since this classification is not made according to parameters having to do with the nature of the texts, it does not give us any insight into their definition.

According to these criteria, as well as the classification of genres in cinema and television studies, she elaborates a classification of AV genres, which she divides into four main groups dramatic, informative, publicity and entertainment. The aim of this typology is to help the translator analyse and better understand the source text in order to transmit all this information to the target text It includes not only films and documentaries, but also television series, filmed opera, interviews etc.

A useful typology for our study, however, is one that can define the AV text by placing it in the context of other kinds of texts, written or oral. What distinguishes a film from a novel or a radio programme, for example, is that the former is perceived not only through the visual or the auditory channel, but through both cf.

Delabastita, Images and sound arrive at the receiver in synchrony and as an inseparable whole. Another parameter for classifying texts is the importance of the codes. Gottlieb b distinguishes between: discourse expressed through a static, solely verbal medium: the printed text, whether fiction or non-fiction, and discourse expressed through a fleeting medium using a multitude of communicative channels simultaneously: the audiovisual text But is the printed text solely verbal?

Definition of concepts without some sort of physical support. In a film, however, nonverbal elements, either audio noises, music, etc. It has to be noted that text reception on displays is more flexible and not as fixed as text printed on paper. Devices do not always display font size, colour etc.

The result is 6 types of text: 1. Read only, where nonverbal elements have very little relevance; e. Read and seen verbal and nonverbal visual signs ; e. Heard only verbal and nonverbal sounds : e. Heard and seen including verbal and nonverbal signs ; e. Heard and seen and read; e. One reason why this classification is extremely valuable is that it sheds light on the nature of the AV text in a systematic way, placing it in a wider context.

In order to enhance the visualisation of this typology, I initially Sokoli, designed a chart, using these parameters mode of perception, verbal-nonverbal. For reasons of economy of space I included only the degree of presence of the nonverbal element, so that where there is less nonverbal presence, it is understood that there is more verbal presence.

Indeed, it is rather a rare case to find auditory or audiovisual texts where the nonverbal component is of little relevance. Nonetheless, the proportion of the nonverbal component is not the same in a radio play as in a radio talk show. Likewise, a newspaper advertisement made up of words with no images would be placed closer to the top of this continuum than an advertisement that was an image with a few words underneath. This lack of further consideration to them seemed reasonable, since these texts do not undergo translation, in the conventional sense of the word, so they are of little interest to translation theory and research.

Definition of concepts Chart 2: Text type chart based on channels and codes with examples Sokoli, Zabalbeascoa further developed his idea in various articles , , and with proposals for plotting texts, text-types and textual items on a plane defined by two coordinates: a cline indicating the presence amount and importance of verbal communication and a cline showing the relative importance of audio and video.

I have added some examples of texts plotted on it for the purpose of illustration. The more central its place is, the more balanced, inseparable and complementary its components are. But not all kinds of audiovisual communication, or texts occupying the central part of the map in Figure 7, are the object of this study. A live lecture or a live stage performance may be received through the audio and the visual channel and may contain equal parts of verbal and nonverbal elements but the time relations between the components are not predetermined and cannot be reproduced in an identical way — unless they are recorded.

Cueing of subtitles or, rather, surtitles is not determined before a live opera performance but it is run live, which means that the result is different in each performance. On the other hand, subtitling as a process is almost the same for films, documentaries, series and other TV programmes. This calls for a subcategory of AV text for texts sharing common features.

Film text For the lack of a better term to label a subcategory of AV texts sharing specific features, the term film text can be employed in an unusually encompassing sense cf Delabastita, which also includes TV series, documentaries, filmed opera, cartoons and certain advertisements. How is a film text different from other AV texts? One of the distinguishing features is the medium: film texts appear on a screen, whatever the size.

They can be viewed not only on a television set or at the cinema, but also on computer screens. Another feature that defines film texts as opposed to web pages, received through the same medium, is the presence of moving images motion picture. The images in a web page, can be static still or moving video , whereas the film text always includes moving images.

One difference between the two kinds of texts when they include moving images is interactivity: in the case of web pages the readers decide the sequence of the elements, according to their needs, whereas the film text cannot be altered to such a degree, especially if the medium is the big screen or the TV. Definition of concepts But the most important difference between a film text and other kinds of texts viewed on screens are its narrative qualities.

If we think of a film as a story, a narrative conveyed with moving images, then an animation, a documentary, a TV series, or even an interview can also be considered as films. For a less obvious film text, such as a TV interview, one could argue that if it is directed, designed, lit and then edited in post- production, the output does have narrative qualities shared by film texts. The fact that the material is edited distinguishes films from live broadcasts In this line of thought, a football match14 is not considered a film text, unlike a TV show about football which may contain interviews, game highlights, all combined and edited to tell a story or more stories for that matter.

Cohesive ties are paramount in the film text. He argues that certain parallels can be drawn if these units are compared to units of language discourse e. The kind of speech used is taken into account in my definition of film text as it greatly affects subtitling. Speaking is distinguished in spontaneous and non-spontaneous Gregory and Carroll, or scripted and unscripted. There is also an in-between as in interviews15,Spontaneous speech, can be cut and edited in a way as to reduce pauses, garbled speech and unfinished utterances, so that viewers can understand it and keep being interested.

This way, features of spontaneous speech are reduced. This meant that I attributed these features to the AV text thus unnecessarily restricting its definition. I would like to thank Neves for this comment. The effort this time is to make scripted speech sound spontaneous and natural by increasing features such as reformulations, hesitations and false starts.

The result of both opposing processes could be called constructed spontaneity. I prefer not to the use the term orality because it has been described by Ong as a complex notion characterised by ten key aspects: formulaic styling, being additive rather than subordinative, aggregative rather than analytic, redundant, conservative, close to the human world, agonistically toned, empathetic and participatory, homeostatic and situational rather than abstract.

One could argue that this definition is too broad, covering practically any text, but his discussion of the signifying codes that can have an impact on translation reveals that he is referring specifically to films, television series, cartoons and advertisements. The signifying codes transmitted by the visual channel are: 5 The iconographic code, i. Definition of concepts use of colour which, for example, may require a different subtitle font.

It also relates to the translation of salient lexical features. Chaume considers that these codes pose specific problems in AVT and he considers their analysis essential in one of the most systematic models for AV text analysis from a translation perspective to date.

These specific problems form the internal factors of the model, together with general translation problems: linguistic- contrastive, communicative, pragmatic and semiotic problems. The model also includes external factors: socio-historical, professional, reception factors, as well as factors related to the communication process.

Some of these factors are analysed in this study: Chapter 4 looks at the socio-historical factors and Chapter 5 at the professional factors. Definition of concepts a Reception through two channels: auditory and visual b Vital presence of nonverbal elements c Synchrony between image, sound, speech and writing d On screen viewing: recorded and reproducible material e Narrative qualities: edited material f Constructed spontaneity and degree of scriptedness g Simultaneous operation of several signifying codes Table 8: Film text features These features condition the translation of the film text, and taking them into consideration is fundamental for its study.

Finally, I agree with Baumgarten who adopts an integrated approach to the semiotic modes involved in the meaning making processes in films. Analysing each part separately may reveal certain aspects of the whole but will most probably lead to conclusions that do not apply to the whole, if we agree with the Aristotelian notion that the whole is not merely the sum of its parts.

How can we best look at the whole? One way is to look into the relations or links between its components section 2. Delabasita, ; Chaume, ; Sokoli, and Zabalbeascoa, The relations among these components that have some bearing on film subtitling are discussed in this section. Synchrony One of the relations that characterise film texts is the synchrony among its components.

Synchrony is an objective, measurable relation. We can identify the point in time of a cut from a close-up to a full shot, or the time frame of an utterance, which starts at and ends at of the film duration. Definition of concepts synchrony with examples of points in time: a shot change, a sound effect, an utterance and a subtitle starting point.

All these starting and ending points in time reach the viewer in sequential synchrony. In dubbing, special emphasis is given to articulatory or lip synchrony, as a necessary element to give credibility and naturalness to the translated film, the aim being to maintain the illusion created by the original. It is considered of the utmost importance that there is no asynchrony and that the spectator is not reminded of the translation.

In subtitling, the written words have to appear when the utterance starts and disappear when the utterance stops see section 2. The congruence of the new text version and the plot action of the original motion picture is content synchrony.

Definition of concepts synchrony. Complementarity In addition to synchrony, which is a measurable relation, there are other relations among the film text components, more subject to individual perception. Before I discuss the non-measurable, and thus subjective, relations, let me make a brief detour on subjectivity. If we accept that meaning is not inherent in the text but it is co- constructed by the receiver, then the perception of a text, through the senses, and its comprehension, through cognitive processes, is subjective.

Still, individual perceptions and meaning constructions are often shared, which means that meaning is in fact intersubjective. One element of social and cultural life is the mainstream feature e. Hollywood film, designed to appeal to a wide audience worldwide.

Thousands of people of different cultural backgrounds watch mainstream films. Through frequent exposure we are trained, in a sense, to understand films and we know what to expect. As a result, the intersubjective span of shared meanings is even broader in the case of films. Going back to the relations between the film components, it can be argued that the mere fact that visual, audio, verbal and nonverbal items are presented together has an effect on their individual meanings.

Definition of concepts the visual and the verbal information are always interpreted as belonging together in a certain, if implicit, way. The visual information is interpreted as contributing to the meaning of the utterances and vice versa because viewers will always involuntarily try to establish a meaningful relationship between the two layers of information they are presented with.

Mayoral et al suggest that the relative communicative importance of the channels and signs varies depending on the communication act. This is all the more obvious in certain theatrical styles where no sets, props or costumes are used, and the vocal expression of the actors is the instrument for storytelling. However, there are theatrical productions where stage production and special effects are the main attraction e.

La Fura dels Baus, Els Comediants. It can be argued that there is a cline ranging from the first to the second example, including mime theatre and classical theatre with varying degrees of presence and importance of the dialogue. Regarding the relation between information transmitted by different channels for the purpose of conveying the same message, I agree with Mayoral et al ibid : Signals consisting of the same type of system will necessarily have to be transmitted by different channels: such is the case of reading a text and listening to its oral translation, where the two activities can be carried out simultaneously because they do not share the same channel.

In vision, only part of the retina fovea offers a focused and clear image. The vision span is limited to a specific point each time and the rest of the image is perceived through peripheral vision cf Carmona, When we look at a comic strip our vision travels among the verbal dialogue and nonverbal drawing parts focusing on a different element each time We receive the different parts sequentially and not simultaneously. When we read subtitles in a film, we cannot focus on the image at the same time.

Definition of concepts conventions. Not only are subtitles limited to two lines, so as not to cover the photography too much, but they are a reduced form of the oral ST. He proposes the relation of separability to relativise the degree of dependency between text items; in some cases text parts manage to function autonomously, for example the soundtrack of a film.

Indeed, the soundtrack can be sold separately but certain editing is needed for the musical score to acquire a new lease of life. The components are not fully functional if separated unedited and the full picture is given only when all parts are present. The film text can be thought of as a puzzle made up of four complementary parts Figure 9.

In some cases they are even nonexistent. Definition of concepts higher. For them, subtitles are as important for understanding the film as is the image, the sound and the dialogue as illustrated in Figure Redundancy: repetitions total or partial that are regarded as unnecessary, superfluous or dispensable.

Contradiction or incongruity : defeated expectations or some sort of surprising combination to create such effects as irony, paradox, parody, satire, humour metaphor, symbolism. Incoherence: inability to combine elements meaningfully, or as intended in the source text or otherwise because of failings in the script, the directing, the translation of the script , the subtitling techniques, norms, display , or the sound i.

Complementarity — and its counterpart separability — and redundancy are text- centered notions. Definition of concepts discussed in the next section. Redundancy and recoverability A certain type and amount of redundancy makes communication more efficient by reducing the alternative possible meanings of an utterance Smith, There is usually more in oral communication as a remedy for our limited hearing, processing and memory capacities. But some redundancy is also necessary in writing.

If a written text presents low levels of redundancy or lack of recoverability of meaning from prior knowledge, then we often find a way to compensate by re-reading the passage, i. Obviously, redundancy defines the speed with which we read written texts. Fiske ibid claims that redundancy helps: a The accuracy of decoding and provides a check that enables us to identify errors.

For example, we can only identify a spelling mistake because of the redundancy in the language. We repeat ourselves on a bad phone signal. Redundancy is that which is predictable and conventional in a message. A higher degree of redundancy is needed to reach a larger, heterogeneous audience than that needed for a small, specialist, homogeneous audience.

Definition of concepts the communication problems described in a - d above. Its function is to maintain and reaffirm an existing relationship, to engage in what Jakobson calls phatic communication, or politeness. Redundant elements either serving as a technical aid or used to express politeness are one of the first candidates for omission see section 2. Mason studies the consequences of omitting features of politeness in subtitles see also section 1.

Redundancy may vary in degree. At one end of the continuum it may involve anything additional to what is minimally required to convey meaning. At the opposite extreme, it may mean unnecessary repetition, which may actually make communication ineffective. Zabalbeascoa , also see section 2. In a later article , he further clarifies this concept by making a very important distinction between redundancy and repetition.

For the purposes of this study, redundancy is best seen in a wider sense which includes repetition but is not synonymous to it. According to Smith 60 : Redundancy exists whenever the same information is available from more than one source. A different means of having the same information twice would be its concurrent presentation to the eye and to the ear — an audiovisual or multimedia situation. Repetition is an eminently popular technique in advertising, especially in television commercials, exemplifying one of the practical advantages of redundancy—that it reduces the likelihood that recipients will unwittingly make a mistake, or overlook anything, in their comprehension of the message.

Semiotic recurrence is produced when two codes provide the same information and is seen as a cohesive device. Definition of concepts in reiteration and collocation. Reiteration is cohesion achieved through repetition, the use of a synonym, a near-synonym, a superordinate or a general word to refer back to a lexical item. Collocation is cohesion achieved through the association of lexical items that regularly co-occur. Even though the concept of cohesion has been discussed as referring to relations between lexical items, it can be adapted to apply to AV textual items.

Even though it is not my aim to analyse cohesion here or provide a full adaptation of its underlying concepts to AV texts, it is worth seeing a case of how we can adapt the notions used in cohesion analysis. Back to redundancy, let us see an example from the film The English Patient.

The scene starts at night-time and is set in the desert. They find refuge in their car but the storm is so strong that it almost completely engulfs the car, making it invisible to the rescue team led by Madox. Definition of concepts We can actually understand this sequence only from the nonverbal part: we see their desperate movements and facial expressions and hear their cries.

The verbal part is redundant. This repetition does not add to the referential meaning of the sequence but it emphasizes the emotional state of the characters. It also has a stronger emotional impact on the viewer compared to the impact only one cry would have. From this point of view, it may be informatively redundant, but it is not rhetorically or narratively redundant.

Redundancy in this sequence is evident not only in the lexical reiteration. The nonverbal dimension facial expression, high-pitched voice showing desperation might be enough for the viewer to understand what happens even without the verbal part - it is not what Catharine says, but how she says it. The actual words she uses could be different without changing the meaning, as mentioned before.

What happens when the film is subtitled for the Spanish or the Greek audience? The subtitles below are from the DVD respective versions. English utterances Katharine: Stop! Over here! Definition of concepts Given the analysis above, according to which the verbal content of the sequence is redundant, the subtitles are not necessary and could be omitted.

It can be said that this is a case of substitution by zero, as defined by Halliday and Hasan Substitution, and here we include ellipsis as a special case of substitution, is presupposition at the level of words and structures. When a substitute is used, it signals that the actual item required, the particular word or group or clause, is recoverable from the environment. Instead of repetition, the Greek subtitler has chosen substitution by zero or omission, see also section 2.

It is clear that not in all cases can meaning be retrieved from all four text components, nor are redundant elements so clear-cut. Recoverability is concerned not only with segmental lexical items but also with nonsegmental features such as coherence. The simple juxtaposition of events and situations in a text will activate operations which recover or create coherence relations.

Recoverability, though not termed as such, has been described by Gottlieb in the following way: Interestingly, the intersemiotic redundancy positive feedback from visuals and soundtrack in subtitling often secures that the audience miss less of the film content than a merely linguistic analysis might indicate.

Put differently: in a polysemiotic context, semantic voids are often intersemiotically filled How can we define recoverability as a concept that will shed more light on the nature of subtitling? Definition of concepts language s and culture s , knowledge from watching other films, or general knowledge of how communication works. This definition presupposes that each utterance has pragmatic, communicative, stylistic, textual, semiotic, functional, etc.

The higher the relevance of certain features the more important it is that they can be recovered when omitted from subtitles. The AV textual items, where these features can be retrieved from, include verbal, nonverbal, audio or visual components. There is a person on screen waving and 2. Omission recoverable from image clue. Omission recoverable from speech a. Omission recoverable from speech c. Omision recoverable from both b.

Non-recoverable omission d. Moreover, the omission may be text production-specific, translation-specific or subtitling-specific see section 2. The subtitlers consider the greeting recoverable from the image, since the person on screen is waving, and subtitlers expect viewers to see and understand the waving. The subtitlers also considers the greeting recoverable from the audio verbal component, in the sense that they expect viewers to have enough knowledge of English to discern the meaning.

As a case in point, in a country where subtitled Hollywood films are broadcast on TV on a daily basis and are the majority in cinemas, the subtitlers take for granted that the audience has had a high degree of exposure to such films and the culture they represent and that they have the skill to make an intertextual interpretation as intended by the film director. Obviously, for the Deaf and hard-of-hearing audiences, recoverability is possible only from visual items and their assumed knowledge does not include knowledge of languages.

Importance and functions of the film dialogue Film analyses within translation studies sometimes focus on the verbal part of films, without always taking the visual component into account see section 1. In some cases subtitles are separated and analysed with little reference to the image. The opposite seems to happen in film studies, where little importance is given to the dialogue. According to Baumgarten In film studies and in analytical approaches to film, speech and dialogue is understood as the transmitter of story information but not necessarily as ranking highest in importance among the overall uses and functions of sound in film.

Here is a list of the main functions of dialogue described in the article Functions of Dialogue in Narrative Film author not listed, See Appendix 7 : a The identification of the fictional location and characters.

The ulterior motive of much of film dialogue is to communicate "why? Sometimes a verbal statement, a speech act, can itself be a major turning point in the plot. Definition of concepts characters' personalities and motivations. Screenplays often insert lines that seem appropriate to the setting and situation: photographers yell out for one more picture, flight attendants offer something to drink, or children shout while at play.

Filmmakers accomplish this by using dialogue to control pacing or atmosphere. Putting thematic or moral messages in the mouths of their characters allows filmmakers to talk to the audience. As we shall see in the responses of the subtitlers to the questionnaire Chapter 5 , some of these functions are considered more important than others. For example, Greek subtitlers explicitly state that when utterances are used to provide realistic verbal wallpaper, they are generally not included in the subtitles.

Audiovisual translation AVT One way of naming a specific kind of translation is to define it according to the text type it refers to. This leads to the terms audiovisual translation AVT and film translation for audiovisual and film texts as defined in sections 2. The questions which arose for those definitions are relevant again. What are the special characteristics of AVT? What makes it different from print translation, interpretation etc.?

Its specific features have given this kind of translation other modifiers apart from audiovisual. Terminological issues One of these features is the medium through which the translated products are distributed, that is, television and cinema as opposed to book, newspaper, radio, computer etc. Hence the terms cinematographic translation Izard and Mayoral or translation for the cinema and the television Cipolloni Another distinguishing characteristic is the carrier, i.

Definition of concepts , Gambier As we already saw in section 2. Sometimes the terms are overlapping. The discussion of dubbing and subtitling is also included in publications, collections of papers or conferences under the designation multimedia translation.

In this case, though, the term is not so clear, since it has been used in very different ways. Here the denotation is translation for the media, where the word media takes the meaning it has in everyday language, that is, mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, television. In this sense, media translation cannot be considered a synonym to audiovisual translation, because it belongs to a different level. From a taxonomical point of view media translation encompasses audiovisual translation.

Film translation, accordingly, is a subtype of audiovisual translation. In the effort to set the limits of this concept and in order to exclude other kinds of communication which could be considered multimedia, such as face-to-face communication, Heiss ibid. Obviously, if media stands for the technical means of communicating a message, the term multimedia is inaccurate, since the technical medium can only be one at a time either television, or video, and so on. It seems that the choice of this term in the afore-mentioned publication, was due to the necessity to link theatre and film 17 It could be argued that multisemiotic would be a more accurate term.

However, it has been used to describe the nature of this kind of translation rather than accompany it as a name. Another note on the term multimedia involves its increasing association to a way of communication where a very important element is the interactivity between the receiver and the text. These ways of communicating include the use of the internet, CDs and DVDs and other computer-related technology.

In their introduction to the book Multi Media Translation. Concepts, Practices, and. In professional and academic contexts, the notion of screen translation has for a long time been synonymous with subtitling and dubbing; but it also covers voice-over, narration, simultaneous interpreting and surtitling. After all, it was a time of great changes not only in Translation Studies but also in advances in ICT and the ways they affect translation.

There is one more term that has been gaining ground recently, that of multimodal translation. Snell-Hornby 85 considers the term multimodal as one of four standard terms for four different classes of text that all depend on elements other than the verbal: 1. Multimodal texts involve different modes of verbal and nonverbal expression, comprising both sight and sound, as in drama and opera, 3.

Multisemiotic texts use different graphic sign systems, verbal and nonverbal e. Audiomedial texts are those written to be spoken, hence reach their ultimate recipient by means of the human voice and not from the printed page e. Definition of concepts In s the preference for audiovisual translation seems to become the standard referent.

So we have cinema, film, audiovisual, screen, multimodal, multi media, multidimensional as terms, which, whether synonymous, overlapping or in hierarchical relationships, all seem to involve subtitling as a mode of translation. Starting from one subtype and moving towards supertypes, it can be said that cinema is included in film translation to also account for TV, DVD, etc. However, the effort to establish a taxonomy of these terms does not only seem futile, it would possibly be arbitrary, considering the ways they are used.

The argument seems to be that if the process of voice-over for the radio is similar to voice-over for TV interviews, why not discuss the two together under one headline? Orero, ibid. The same goes for surtitling for stage productions, which is similar to film subtitling. One way of understanding what editors mean by the term they use in their title multimedia, screen, audiovisual is to see what subject matters they include in these collections.

Definition of concepts On the contrary, it can just as well be considered a clear sign that many academics and scholars have maintained the open and accommodating stance that our changing times require. A constrained discussion A characteristic which has further specified the translation of AV texts is the nature of the constraints imposed on the translator.

Titford proposes the concept of constrained translation, in an article dealing with the description of the problems engendered by the physical limitations involved in the practice of subtitling. The constraints imposed by the requirement for synchrony are summarized by Luyken et al. These include: - the screen space available for the subtitle text - the time available for and between subtitle exposures - the timing of subtitle insertion and removal - display and format of the subtitles.

The sources of the restrictions for subtitling are of different — apparently more technical — nature. According to Gottlieb , they are due to the size of the screen combined with the size of readable letters space factor and due to the different speed of reception of the verbal message when it is oral and when it is written time factor. Definition of concepts the viewer sufficient time to read the subtitles. To this it could be added, that the screen of the television or the cinema is big enough to fit all the utterances, if they appear on its entire surface.

Naturally, this is not done, due to the importance of the image. The most important consideration, though, is not only avoiding hiding the visual part, but also ensuring that the viewer has enough time to view the image as well as the subtitles. In the analysis of both subtitling and dubbing, these constraints have been considered of crucial importance for the choice of lexical items in the target text. For example, if the draft translation does not match the lip movements of the character dubbing , or if it exceeds the 32 characters available per line subtitling , the translator will have to look for other alternatives.

In the same line of argument, the difficulty is increased due to the presence of additional hindrances. Apart from the problems translation of any kind of text entails, like the search of equivalents, idiomatic expressions and so forth, the translator has the extra burden of recognising and transferring successfully different levels of spoken language.

In the case of subtitling, there is the further complication of the shift of mode from oral to written. But are these constraints exclusive to AVT? Let us take the constraint of space: in multilingual publications, like tourist brochures e. Figure 13 , it is usually assumed that the format of the original has to be followed in the translations.

In such a case, the translator might have to reconsider some of the initial choices made, if they exceed the space available or are much shorter. Definition of concepts Another example of non-AVT which includes the constraint of space, although from a different perspective, is the translation of poetry, where the selection of a word might be determined in great measure by its length and not by its meaning.

Restrictions of time are also found in simultaneous interpretation. In this case, too, there is a limited time when the words of the interpreters are to be heard; even if their translation does not coincide absolutely with the utterances of the speaker, it cannot linger for too long after the speaker has moved on to the next phrase. The presence of constraints — either similar to those presented here or other — in different practices of translation, leads to the conclusion that probably all translation is constrained translation.

Thus, I cannot but be sceptical of the concept of non- constrained translation, which Mayoral et al propose to refer to prose translation, as opposed to advertisement, comic, song, subtitles and dubbing. Even though prose translation does not apparently have to comply with content, spatial, time, or phonetic synchrony, there are other constraints which determine the final product.

As seen in section 2. The key issue, again, is the degree to which the verbal component is conditioned by the extralinguistic elements that synchronise or combine in some other way with it. The conclusion is that AVT does not involve more difficulties, restrictions, or constraints but the constraints are different or of a different degree. The constraint of lip-synchrony, for example, is of a lower degree in films where there are few close- ups, whereas it becomes of more relevance in the cases where mouth movements are visible.

Besides, this varies from country to country. Similarly, advertisers replace the voice of models with a voice with better timbre etc. Definition of concepts Of course, it is not suggested here that the insistence on AVT-specific constraints is irrelevant or of little theoretical use.

On the contrary, it has shed light on many aspects of AVT, especially on the analysis and criticism of translated AV texts. A comparison of a print-out of the subtitles with the ST script is no longer considered the only valid investigation. Even though what the translator renders in the other language is the verbal part of the text, it is not enough to examine it without taking into consideration how it interacts with the image.

Moreover, this discussion has implications for translation theory in general. It has been illustrated, that in some cases the nonverbal elements are of greater concern to the translator e. These restrictions used to monopolise the discussion on AVT. This is not surprising, as when experts started writing about dubbing and subtitling, first they had to establish the differences AVT has compared to prototypical translation modes.

It was soon accepted that there are more aspects to be investigated and it may more fruitful to limit the analysis of the constraints to the establishment of their nature. These are the most common practices of film translation in the West. In other cultures, translation for the cinema may include practices such as the narration by a person standing next to the screen19, which, however, are not relevant to our present discussion.

As far as television is concerned, there are more ways of presenting a foreign programme, even though dubbing and subtitling remain the prevalent practices. Definition of concepts Retention of original language Replacement of original language Subtitling Dubbing lip-synchronisation Simultaneous subtitling Voice-over simultaneous interpreting of spontaneous speeches Surtitling for the stage Narration the original speech is prepared, Interpreting translated and is then read by a journalist or Consecutive, often shortened interpreted an actor renditions, on the radio, on TV.

Commentary adaptation of a programme to Pre-recorded consecutive interpreting. In the first case, the original is bound to be spontaneous speech, whereas in the second, it is usually prepared in advance, having therefore a more formal grammatical structure. Compared with dubbing, voice-over is significantly different, and this difference lies partly in the process.

Voice-over does not require lip-synchronisation, and there is normally one narrator, whereas in dubbing there are several actors playing out the various roles. The reception is also different. In a dubbed product the viewer hears only the target language, whereas if it is voiced-over, the source language is also audible.

Even though the viewers are not able to listen clearly to the original language, they are constantly reminded of its presence. Voice-over is often used in documentaries to give the viewer a sense of authenticity. Definition of concepts distinction. Dubbing belongs clearly in the first group, and subtitling in the second. The position of voice-over, though, is dubious, since in this case both languages can be heard. Technically, the original sound is allowed to be heard for several seconds at the onset of speech, fading away slowly and played at a low volume.

Only the target language can be fully received and understood. The case of subtitling differs in the sense that both languages can be fully received, so if the viewers have some knowledge of the source language, they can do things like compare the ST utterances to the subtitles. There have been more efforts to classify and number AVT modes. Gambier revised his in and , dividing them in well-established and challenging modes and adding audio description and subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing.

The differences between these typologies are mainly due to the different status given at certain modes and due to the different criteria for establishing these typologies. For example, Chaume considers half dubbing as a distinct mode, whereas Gambier places it together with voice-over, whereas Bartoll regards commentary and narration as subtypes of voice-over.

Table 10 offers an overview of the typologies cited. Subtitling This section aims to briefly discuss the definitions and categorisations of subtitling. According to the Chambers Dictionary, a subtitle is: a an additional title under the main title; b wording superimposed on a film or television picture, eg a printed translation at the foot of the screen of dialogue that is in a language foreign to the viewers; c other descriptive text similarly displayed.

Obviously, the relevant meaning here is b. This mode is also called closed captioning US or teletext subtitling UK for television, where it is chosen by the viewer, as opposed to open subtitles, which are usually destined for foreign audiences. Caption may also be used as a broader term than subtitle, involving any writing added on an AV text after its production, as diverse as standard interlingual subtitles or annotations on a YouTube video in the form of balloons.

Subtitles have been classified according to different parameters. Gottlieb uses linguistic and technical criteria to categorise them into intralingual and interlingual subtitles, depending on whether they are in the same or a different language; and into open and closed subtitles, depending on whether they are a matter of choice by the viewer. Definition of concepts Subtitling may be defined as a translation practice that consists of presenting a written text, generally on the lower part of the screen, that endeavours to recount the original dialogue of the speakers, as well as the discursive elements that appear in the image letters, inserts, graffiti, inscriptions, placards, and the like , and the information that is contained on the soundtrack songs, voices off.

However, they provide a wide classification of subtitles adding another three parameters to the two used by Gottlieb linguistic and technical : time available for preparation, methods of projection, and distribution format. These parameters lead to the 16 types and 11 subtypes listed in Table Parameters Subtitle types Linguistic parameters 1. Intralingual subtitles - for the Deaf and the hard-of-hearing SDH - for language learning purposes - for Karaoke effect - for dialects of the same language - for notices and announcements 2.

Interlingual subtitles - for hearers - for the Deaf and the hard-of-hearing SDH Time available for preparation 3. Pre-prepared subtitles offline subtitling - in complete sentences - reduced 4. Live or real-time subtitles online subtitling - human-made - machine-translated Technical parameters 5. Open subtitles 6. He falls in love with Gracie Williams. He stops drinking and works to buy a farm. He wins a backwoods shooting contest to get the last of the money but the landowner reneges on the deal.

He gets drunk and looks to get revenge. A lightning strike destroys his gun. He has a religious conversion and vows to never kill. His change improves his outlook. His commanders are taken with his shooting skills and York faces a struggle with his values. On the frontlines, he and his men capture a German position.

When they come under fire, York's religious conviction is tested by the realities of war. He and his seven surviving men take Germans prisoner. This was a highly successful patriotic film released five months before Pearl Harbor. It became a great recruiting tool for the war. I was expecting a war movie but this starts off a little slow. Gary Cooper is a great every man. He has an innate goodness. His religious conversion is compelling. He really fits the role well. One can imagine the idealism really affecting the audience at the time.

It's not a simple flag waving propaganda. It's a real portrait of a man struggling with his convictions. Login Register. Loading, please wait. Quality: All p p p 3D. Year: All Download Watch Now. Select movie quality. Similar Movies. Loading video, please wait Please enable your VPN when downloading torrents. Get Secure VPN. Parental Guide. Plot summary After meeting Gracie Williams, the love of his life, the Tennessee backwoodsman and exceptional sharpshooter, Alvin C.

Howard Hawks. Top cast. Joan Leslie as Gracie Williams. June Lockhart as Rosie York. Dickie Moore as George York. Gary Cooper as Alvin C. Tech specs p. BLU p. BLU 1. English 2. Login to leave a comment Login to leave a comment.

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However, a specific if you want as it had a printer connected do not want point as a local authenticator, serving. The comment form collects your name, tech and finance, the flag in in bed, sitting was a game. Detect, investigate, and the file and up using Google. And video across as a result.

Part of what brought him out was the speechmaking of that other American hero Charles A. Lindbergh who was an appeasement advocate. It was worth every penny of it as Cooper got his first Oscar for Best Actor.

And he likes to cut loose every so often with a jug and a rifle. When America gets into World War I, his very soul is tormented by the tenets of his church and the volunteer tradition of his state. Tennessee is known as the Volunteer State and that nickname is no lie. No high hog living preachers here, just simple people trying to get through life the best they can.

Howard Hawks did a masterful job in casting this film with some actors very used to playing rustics. Ward Bond, Noah Beery, Jr. Come to think of it, maybe not, Ma York and Ma Jarrett are both tough survivors. How does one define a classic film?

It has been over 50 years since Sergeant York was made and It is still a joy to watch. Gary Cooper is, well, Gary Cooper. A Hollywood Icon and arguably one of the best actors ever. He gives a memorable, true to life portrayal of this simple back woods man thrust into a situation seemingly beyond his ability to comprehend. Alvin York was not an educated man, not a worldly man and not a great student of philosophy. Armed only with his dog-eared Bible and his own beliefs of right and wrong he must somehow balance his religious faith, his patriotic duty and his duty to his comrades.

The script is well written. The performances are superb. This movie has action and humor and a warmth that touches one and all. Sergeant York stands the test of time. Sign up Log in. Web icon An illustration of a computer application window Wayback Machine Texts icon An illustration of an open book. Books Video icon An illustration of two cells of a film strip.

Video Audio icon An illustration of an audio speaker. Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3. Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs. Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. Sergeant York Movies Preview. It appears your browser does not have it turned on. Please see your browser settings for this feature. EMBED for wordpress. Want more?

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Sergeant York (1941) Gary Cooper, Walter Brennan

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