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Our data show that these potential end-members are highly variable spatially and temporally. The different sources reflect differing water-rock interaction times as evinced by variable elemental ratios e. This study shows that even in a lithologically well-constrained watershed, large variations in cation flux occur over daily and seasonal timescales, primarily due to changing hydrological conditions. Thus, knowledge of the hydrology of a catchment is essential to quantify cyclic cationic denudation rates, and to estimate silicate weathering rates.
Umweltwissenschaften, Uni Basel. Canalization of many rivers in the 19th century strongly influenced the economic development and urbanization of most European countries. Together with technical developments in agriculture, a series of environmental problems such as flooding, groundwater pollution and ecological changes, including the decrease of characteristic habitats of riverine landscapes, were created. Most of the river valleys are important groundwater reservoirs, in particular in central Europe.
These reservoirs are often highly endangered due to intense agricultural and industrial activities and a dense network of urban areas connected by numerous traffic lines. Additionally, the high permeability of fluvial sediments esp. Formulated goals for a sustainable development of water resources guide mitigation strategies and consider defined standards, i.
Major efforts for future transdisciplinary research, with respect to hydrological regimes low and high flow or groundwater flow regimes, will concentrate on the knowledge of the structural dynamics of the river and related groundwater systems. To identify hydrological and hydrogeological system profiles, methodologies to quantify and control these profiles must be developed and applied. This can be achieved by the implementation of management systems that include observation systems and the development of numerical models combined with specific field experiments and scenario development.
The integral of changes in river structures in the catchment i. Due to the experience gained from the hazardous flood events in the last twenty years, the pollution problems and the loss of characteristic riverine landscapes, most countries have adopted a more comprehensive view of rivers. It is recognized that the consideration of processes of river-groundwater interactions are important, which significantly differ for natural and channelized states.
Within this context, positive and negative aspects of river-groundwater interaction for channelized and non-channelized surface waters are investigated. The interaction of surface and subsurface waters is subject to continuous dynamics involving water budgets, water quality and flow patterns.
When considering quantitative hydrological aspects of river-groundwater interaction, the transient character of riverbed permeability is an essential factor. Sediment erosion as well as transport and deposition processes are influenced by rivers that are able to exert their natural dynamics. As a consequence, the variance of the riverbed permeability is increased temporarily, influencing infiltration rates and groundwater mixing ratios, as well as residence times for groundwater from different provenance.
To understand the dynamics of river-groundwater interaction, our investigations focus on: 1 the evaluation of transient hydraulic boundary conditions, including the transient character of riverbed permeability and 2 qualitative aspects of surface waters and groundwater. Results from experiments of selected river-reaches are presented, including: 1 adequate observation systems that facilitate the measurement of groundwater parameters at different depths, as well as the definition of sampling strategies, 2 non-destructive geophysical methods Georadar, Geoelectrics within the river bed and the riparian zone, as well as 3 subsequent high resolution groundwater flow and transport modeling, including scenario techniques, model calibration and sensitivity analyses.
Interaction processes are studied at a regional and a local scale e. Upper Rhine Graben, individual catchment areas, river-reaches and capture zones of extraction wells. In the vicinity of surface water bodies, sediment quality and redox conditions frequently change and biological activity is enhanced creating additional possibilities for contaminant retention and degradation.
To what extent these altered conditions affect the contaminant fate strongly depends on groundwater flow paths, which are often highly complex in vicinity of surface water bodies, and the residence time of groundwater in zones with geochemical conditions suitable for contaminant degradation or retention. In the presentation, results from two field sites are discussed where a tetrachloroethene PCE and a trichloroethene TCE plume, respectively discharges to a stream. PCE and TCE are well suited compounds to evaluate the effect of changing geochemical conditions on the contaminant fate since their degradation is highly dependent on the redox conditions.
PCE and TCE degrade by reductive dechlorination under moderately reducing conditions, while their degradation products cis-1,2- dichloroethene cdce and vinyl chloride VC require strongly reducing conditions for further reductive transformation.
Alternatively, cdce and VC can also be oxidized to CO2 under aerobic and moderately reducing conditions. At the two sites, contaminant transformation was characterized using high resolution sampling and analysis of redox sensitive species, dissolved contaminants, stable isotope ratios of contaminants and microbial parameters.
At the PCE site Abe et al. While no degradation occurred in the sandy aquifer, highly variable degradation was observed in the streambed sediments related to small scale heterogeneities. The degree of degradation reached from no degradation in sandier zones where rapid groundwater discharge occurred to complete reductive dechlorination in clay-rich zones where highly reducing conditions prevailed.
The TCE site consisted of an unconfined sandy aquifer Chapman et al. In the upgradient part of the site, groundwater travelled at a depth of several meters below ground surface while in the downgradient zone, the water table was close to the surface and contaminants partly migrated through organic carbon rich floodplain sediments where reductive dechlorination occurred Figure 1b. However, the shallow water table conditions favored groundwater discharge into ponds and creeks.
Hence, while the aquifer showed a substantial capacity for contaminant degradation, most of the contaminants traveled via these small creeks to the main stream. The studies demonstrate that in order to gain insight into the contaminant fate at groundwater-surface water interfaces a good understanding of the geochemical variability and groundwater flow paths is essential.
At both sites, zones with favorable conditions for contaminant degradation occurred. However, these zones were partly by-passed and overall only partial elimination of the contaminants occurred. Finally, the study also illustrates the need for high resolution sampling to develop a consistent conceptual model of contaminant migration and degradation at groundwater-surface water interfaces. Abe, Y.
As part of the two natural radioactive decay series of U and Th, respectively, they are released from minerals to fluids e. Both radon-isotopes can be found in soil gas. It is often used as a tracer for assessing residence times of surface waters infiltrating to ground water.
In contrast, studies on thoron in aquatic systems are rare. However, thoron is expected to be found in groundwater, too, where it could be used for an assessment of mixing. Up to now, we did not find any thoron in ground water. This is most probably related to the fast decay of thoron, which result in a restricted mobility, and the time-consuming detection system to determine thoron. Further more, the geophysical and geochemical character of the radionuclides of the U series is different from that of the Th series and, therefore, the appearance of radon in aquatic systems does not necessarily reflect the occurrence of thoron.
In order to conceptually describe the thoron emanation we formulated the following working hypothesis: The precursors of radon and thoron , , Ra are known to be slightly more soluble in anoxic than in groundwater in oxic water, Ra is only hardly soluble and remain essentially in the solid phase.
As a result, the emanation of thoron to the water phase may be enhanced by radium, which is attached to surface coatings of the precipitates. In order to enhance the sampling procedure, we modulated a conventional sampling system RAD7, coupled with commercial degassing unit RAD AQUA by interconnecting an additional closed air loop with adjustable diaphragm pump to decrease the residence times of water and air between sampling and measurement.
The hydrogeochemistry dramatically changed over time from oxic to strongly reducing conditions as emphasized by increasing concentrations of ferrous iron, sulfide, and methane since day This indicated that less fractionating DCE oxidation was progressively replaced by reductive dechlorination, associated with a more pronounced isotopic effect and further confirmed by the detection of vinyl chloride and ethene since day This study demonstrates the linkage between hydrogeochemical variability and intrinsic degradation processes and highlights the potential of CSIA to trace the temporal and spatial changes of the dominant degradation mechanism of DCE in natural or engineered systems.
In parallel, the dynamics and composition of microbial communities in the aqueous phase of the model wetland was characterized. PCR-DGGE analysis of water sample obtained from different part of the wetland revealed that changes of the bacterial community structures coincided with a succession of the hydrogeochemical conditions in the wetland, from oxic towards anoxic conditions.
During this transition phase, the appearance of vinyl chloride and ethene correlated with the presence of putative dechlorinating bacteria Dehalococcoides spp. Additionally, shift of DCE isotopic composition indicated the progressive prevalence of reductive dechlorination in the wetland. Although the DCE degradation processes varied over time, biodegradation activity was maintained in the wetland system. Based on an multiple-method approach, this study illustrates the linkage between microbial community dynamics and composition, changes of hydrochemical conditions and processes of DCE degradation in a wetland system Role of land-atmosphere interactions for climate extremes and trends Eric B.
These processes are to a large extent associated with soil moisture. This presentation provides an overview on recent analyses investigating the role of soil moisture-atmosphere coupling for the European summer climate over the period using simulations with a regional climate model. The set of experiments consists of a control simulation with interactive soil moisture, and sensitivity experiments with prescribed soil moisture.
Soil moisture-climate interactions are found to have significant effects on temperature extremes. In addition, is also found that soil moisture has a significant effect on heat wave persistence through soil moisture memory. For extreme precipitation events on the other hand, only the wet day frequency is impacted in the experiments with prescribed soil moisture.
Finally, trends in climate extremes in current climate-change projections, such as an increase in temperature over the whole European continent, as well as a Southern European decrease and Northern European increase in precipitation extremes, can already be detected in simulations for the past decades, and appear at least partly linked to soil moisture-atmosphere feedbacks Swissrivers. The needs for such systems are related to flood management, hydroelectricity market or leisure activities.
In this context, swissrivers. The new web platform with a direct geographical access to river discharge predictions. The new online platform works as follows: numerical weather predictions are provided by the Federal Office for Meteorology and Climatology Meteoswiss , twice a day and up to 72 hours ahead. In order to optimize the quality of the predicted discharges, the hydrological model is updated 4 times a day: the continuous simulation is automatically modified by comparison between discharge measurements and computed discharges based on meteorological observations over the last 24 hours for each one of the automatic federal gauging stations of Switzerland BAFU.
The objective of this model update is to ensure that the model always simulates realistic discharges in rivers. For every selected location, the updated simulation of the last 24h, as well as the discharge prediction for the next 30 hours are presented as a plot.
The system is based on the RS3. The performance of the system has been optimized by a calibration-validation procedure using more than 15 years of hourly data, over control points in Switzerland. However, the model could be improved by integration of new historical and real-time control points, in basins located upstream of large dams and reservoirs.
Garcia, J. Jordan, F. Amongst others, the temperature increase will cause an upward shift of the snowline, and precipitation will fall more often as rain than as snow. The combination of these changes will provoke a change in the runoff regime such as an earlier yearly peak flow. While evapotranspiration will generally increase in a future climate, the changes in precipitation amounts will differ seasonally, with increases in winter and decreases in summer OcCC Our main interest lies in the question when and in particular where the system starts tipping over and abovementioned changes show through in the hydrological response of catchments.
This issue will be addressed in the framework of the joint research project Climate Change in Switzerland Hydrology CCHydro which was initiated by the Federal Office for the Environment FOEN and seeks to assess possible effects of climate change on hydrological systems in Switzerland. The heterogeneity of complex mountainous landscapes, however, forbids general statements.
Therefore, a multidisciplinary and holistic approach was chosen and the scenarios in use are of high temporal and spatial resolution. As a first step, hydrological modelling is used to identify and examine catchments that exhibit sensitivity towards a change in climate.
The mesoscale catchments under investigation have a mean area of about km 2. After calibration of the catchments for which measured. Spatially and temporally highly resolved scenarios of the projected climate change until will then be used to force the model. As a result, regions exhibiting climate sensitivity in the period to will be specified, and possible causal relationships between sensitivity and specific catchment characteristics will be evaluated.
Bern: OcCC. Geographica Bernensia G Viviroli, D. Geographica Bernensia P Bravard et al. Comparison of historical maps from to Dufour map, Siegfried Atlas, and several editions of national map of Switzerland shows several events of fluvial metamorphosis Bravard of the channel. Until the s, numerous gravel bars, extensive islands and large active zone can be observed. The braided style is the dominant fluvial pattern. Since the end of the 19 th century, most of channels are straight, excepted one area the Finges Forest zone where a large part of the valley is occupied by an important braided system.
Since the s, a channel constriction is observed as well and incision of the present straight channel is progressing. Analysis of the metamorphosis factors emphasises principally one external variable, which modified the system: human intervention. Channelization of the Rhone river and its tributaries from the late 19 th century and gravel extractions have completely modified the natural sedimentary functioning and balance, in a period of reduced sedimentary supply that characterises the end of the Little Ice Age.
Moreover, morphological modifications of the fluvial system had impacts on the floodplain landscape evolution and land use in the valley, which was characterised by large woodland and wetland areas until the end of 19 th century. Understanding functioning of past environments may be a precious help to anticipate eventual future flood events that cause large damages in the Alpine range.
Bravard, J. In Desmet M. Only under steady climate conditions the release rate of these materials, and water, is constant. Under a varying climate there exist cold periods with reduced release of accumulated water and chemical species, as well as warm periods when water is released at high rate. During the warm periods, high concentrations of chemicals and sediments are released from the glacier. We present results from a transient flow line model of a glacier which allows us to quantify these processes.
In a case study on Oberaargletscher we show that persistent organic pollutants POPs emitted to the atmosphere in the s were stored in the glacier and are released at high rate during the last decade. In fact, tunnel drilling may cause a drawdown of piezometric levels and inflows in tunnels can be a problem during excavation steps.
To this purpose various conceptual approaches has been performed to describe and model the groundwater flow through fractured rock masses, ranging from equivalent continuum models to discrete fracture network simulation models. However their application needs many preliminary investigations on the behavior of the groundwater system; moreover these models request a correct calibration, that is very complex, even impossible without a collection of necessary structural and hydrochemical data.
To study large-scale flow systems in fractured rocks of mountainous terrains, a comprehensive study is ongoing close to Lugano using the data produced in one of the main infrastructures actually in construction, the Alptransit Monte Ceneri base tunnel. The main goal of this work is the understanding of how the collection of isotopic and geochemical data, and geophysical techniques VLF profiles and 2D resistivity surveys , combining with structural and hydrogeological informations, can be used in order to develop hydrogeological conceptual and perhaps numerical models.
In the region surrounding the Monte Ceneri base tunnel there are about springs actually registered in the cantonal database. On the basis of criteria of i relevance use and discharge and ii distance from the tunnel, a number of springs are be selected for monthly measurements of discharge, electric conductivity, ph, and temperature, and water samples are taking to monitor stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen 2 H, 18 O and tritium 3 H , perhaps combined with helium Furthermore these data will be compared with tunnel inflows informations to perform, within reason, a validation of the model that will be designed taking advantages of these techniques.
In particular, the analysis of stable isotope composition of springs, will reflect their water origin, because spatial recharge altitude, topography, etc. The analysis of tritium, that is a radioactive isotope, will be used for groundwater dating fig. Stable isotopes fractionation: physical processes and relevant registered effects. Figure 2. Basic principles of the dating methods with tritium. On the left the registered tritium concentration during last decades, that allows to qualitative distinction between young and old groundwaters.
On the right the using of tritium combined with helium Their dynamics in an ecosystem erosion, transport, aggregation and subsequent settling is a key parameter to understand the fate and potential impacts of colloid-associated pollutants such as metals or organic pollutants e.
Benoit et al. In river systems, colloidal particles are mainly of detrital origin and derived from the erosion of soils and impermeable surfaces in the watershed. In the present study, the watershed of the Versoix River France, Switzerland , a tributary of Lake Geneva, has been investigated by sampling water at different sites along the river course, and under various hydrological conditions low flows, snow melting, small floods. The watershed main characteristics slope, land use have been determined at each sampling point and quantified through a GIS-based study.
Results show that the size distributions expressed in number of particles follow a power law, with very similar slopes, independently of the concentration. At the river mouth, colloid concentrations during small flood conditions were 10 to times higher than during low flows, while suspended matter was only 2 to 3 times higher, and the discharge increased just by a factor two. These large discrepancies in the amplification factors between suspended particles and colloids concentrations reflect the preferential mobilization of easy erodible colloidal particles during rain events.
In addition, colloid concentrations also generally increase with the distance from the head waters, for both high and low flows. This likely reflects a continuous colloid source from the river bed itself. However some variations exist in the colloid concentration that may be related to differences in the land cover. The Versoix River watershed is complex, comprising forest, meadows, cultivated fields, industrial and urban surfaces, and wetlands. A careful examination of the colloid concentration evolution along the river course during rain events shows that proportion of urban surfaces and cultivated field are positively correlated to increased colloid concentrations in the river.
As the capacity of colloidal particles to scavenge and subsequently transport contaminant is largely related to their specific surface, the large increase of colloid concentrations during flood implies a much larger potential contaminant load to the receiving water body than that generally observed with pollutant inputs related to suspended particle matter.
Irace-Guigand, S,and Aaron JJ, The role of organic colloids in herbicide transfer to rivers: a quantitative study of triazine and phenylurea interactions with colloids. Analytical and Bioanalytical chemistry, Benoit, S. Cantu, E. Hood, C. Coleman, M. Corapcioglu and P. Loizeau, Use of single particle single particle counters for the determination of number and size distribution of colloid in natural surface waters.
Colloids and Surfaces A An important aspect of the flow regime is the disturbance element, i. The interactions between water, sediment, and riparian vegetation are most evident in natural unregulated rivers, such as gravel-bed braided streams and sand-bed meandering rivers. Restoration projects in regulated rivers often aim to make room for these natural interactions to take place. Therefore we need to continuously improve the scientific basis to understand the fundamental water-sediment-vegetation interactions and develop new tools and methods to simulate and test them.
In this paper we present two new approaches numerical and laboratory-based which we are developing in our group and which look at water disturbance as an organizing element of riparian vegetation. This is an approach that models the expansion and contraction of the exposed sediment area in a braided river driven by stochastic flood disturbances and by a deterministic colonization of the exposed sediment banks and bars by riparian vegetation in the time between the floods.
The basic model allows us to develop an analytical solution for the probability density function of the exposed sediment area as a function of the flood disturbance parameters and vegetation growth rate Fig 1 Perona et al. Setup of the process equation for the exposed sediment area A sw and an illustration of the solution for the pdf of A sw. This simple model may be extended to include successive vegetation stages and their competition for available space on the floodplain Perona et al.
The second laboratory approach is an experiment which studies the role of hydrological disturbances on biomass erosion dynamics in a sand-bed flume which is seeded by a fast growing grass. In the experiment we studied the interactions between the disturbances and the growth rate of the vegetation roots and stems. Preliminary results show that the action of fluvial erosion removes systematically plants that are not able to withstand the applied stress, while the non-eroded community continues to grow and develop Fig 2.
The two presented approaches both illustrate that the water disturbance regime plays an important role in the organization of braided river morphologies and sand bed streams, riparian vegetation, and plant communities. The water disturbance regime and vegetation growth interact and result in a dynamic riparian community. We advocate that this is not a deterministic problem and that the effect of water-sediment-riparian vegetation interactions should be examined in a probabilistic framework both at a large field and small laboratory scale.
Example of a simulation run with the histograms of the number of roots top , length of the main root center and stem height bottom for eroded and non-eroded plants. Perona, P. Molnar, M. Savina, and P. Burlando An observation-based stochastic model for sediment and vegetation dynamics in the floodplain of an Alpine braided river, Water Resour.
However, flow resistance due to such form roughness elements appears to be an important control on bedload transport rates in mountain streams. Recently, new approaches based on laboratory experiments were proposed to assess flow resistance due to form roughness.
They quantify the effects of generalized models of roughness elements to flow resistance. Furthermore, several empirically derived formulae to calculate bedload transport rates including a respective roughness parameter have been published. The objective of our study is to systematically test these approaches with field observations.
For this purpose, we measured the required roughness parameters for seven Swiss mountain streams, with local channel gradients ranging from 1. We calculated flow resistance and bedload transport for sediment transport events in and By comparing calculated and observed data of bedload transport we identified whether and in which range the examined approaches are suitable for application in natural stream conditions. Chapitre de livre CEAT. In regional and deep groundwater flow system underground draining structures as tunnels, cause a diminution of pore pressure leading to an increasing effective stress and a decreasing permeability.
One approach consists to insert constitutive laws relating effective stress to permeability in Darcy s law, which is used to evaluate 3D regional simulations of discharge rates, pressure distributions and flow paths. This approach gain in accuracy as compared to the classical ones which consider constant permeability field. However, the type and parameterization of the constitutive law influence the final result.
In this work, three different model functions relating effective stress to permeability are implemented in the tensor form of Darcy s law, and compared by means of numerical experiments. Two of these functions were derived from experimental works Louis ; Walsh , the other one was theoretically derived from Hooke s law.
Numerical simulations are all based on an initial fractured hydrostatic system where an underground draining structure is activated, causing a steady-state saturated flow from the upper boundary condition surface to the lower boundary condition underground structure. The governing non linear equations are solved using the finite element method.
In the three cases, results show that the introduction of stress-dependent permeabilities in Darcy s law leads to discharge rates significantly lower than those calculated with the classical approach. This is explained by a decreasing permeability due to an increasing effective stress, particularly in the vicinity of the deep draining structure. Louis experimental model yields the largest difference and has the deficiency of not considering the vertical stress term, while Walsh s model is difficult to solve numerically due to higher order non linearities.
The elasto-statistical model analytically derived from Hooke s law seems to be better adapted for solving such problems and yields differences which are somewhat smaller than the two others. Louis C. Walsh J. Rock Mech. Possible interactions between debris flows, shallow landslides and fluvial sediment transport in steep streams are illustrated Figure 1. These processes often occur during high-intensity or long-duration rainstorms, possibly combined with snowmelt, resulting in slope instabilities, sediment transporting flows and floods.
These processes are often associated with damage to houses or infrastructure, particularly along the channel network, and may involve also casualties. Debris flows typically occur in steep headwater catchments. A torrent catchment is characterised by sporadic and sudden high discharges of both water and sediments, and it typically comprises a catchment area less than about 25 km2.
The torrent system and debris-flow occurrence can be characterised by three main zones: The headwater area or initiation zone where the flow is triggered, the transit zone gully and channels where entrainment of more solid material may occur, and the debris fan area where often major deposition takes place. Debris flows in the Alps may involve total sediment volumes of up to some hundred thousand cubic metres. The sediment may be supplied from point sources such as landslides or from incision of the torrent bed by vertical and lateral erosion.
The total event magnitude is often used as a rough indication to characterise the intensity of a debris flow. This parameter largely influences the flow behaviour in the channel and in the case of overtopping - the extent of the affected areas on the fan. Debris flows may deliver important quantities of sediment to the receiving mountain river. Sediment transport dynamics in these channels may be quite different from low-gradient channels.
There is often a strong interaction between hillslope processes and the channel network. Sediment transport may be supply limited rather than controlled by the sediment transport capacity for a given discharge and channel conditions. Steep headwater streams are characterised by a wide range of sediment sizes and temporally- and spatially-variable sediment sources. Bed morphology and channel structures may be influenced by the presence of large boulders, woody debris and bedrock constrictions.
This can result in large variations in channel geometry, streamflow velocity and roughness, and thus the application of theoretical sediment transport equations may be problematic. Also, quantitative measurements of sediment and bedload transport in steep streams are very limited. In this presentation an overview will be given on the processes debris flows, shallow landslides and fluvial sediment transport. A particular focus will be the discussion of interactions between these processes.
Although a number of methods have been proposed to predict and describe the initiation and flow behaviour of debris flows and sediment transporting flows in mountain streams, quantitative predictions for hazard assessment are still difficult in many cases. The application of some methods will be illustrated using some examples from past flood and rainstorm events. It has been realized in different studies that the hydraulic conductivity of the reservoir is the dominant factor e.
The aim of this study is to develop a method to characterize the porosity from gravity inversion combined with 3D geological modeling. Gravity measurements provide information on the density of subsurface units either by forward modeling or inversion. Furthermore, when the geological area is well known, the 3D gravity inversion is well constraint so it provides accurate result and best densities values are obtained.
For porosity, one among the relationships which exist between the density and porosity can be used e. Johnson et al. In the geothermal area of Soultz the combination of 3D geology and gravity inversion has revealed density changes in the granitic basement Figure 1 which can be related to both changes in the granitic facies to the North of the geothermal site and to porosity in the horst structure, where the reservoir is located Schill et al.
Synthetic models for other deep geothermal reservoirs such as St. Gall Switzerland provide further indication on the possibilities to deduce porosity from gravity forward modeling. The example from Soultz shows, however, that only if the geological structures are well known and can be assumed as fix in the gravity inversion, the estimation of density changes caused by porosity are possible. E-W extension 29 km, altidude a.
Schill, E. Johnson, P. Although most dye tracers used in hydrogeology are harmless to the environment Behrens et al. The recent appearance of small, inexpensive LEDs radiating UV light made it possible the excitation of colourless tracers of the naphthalene family. Today, thanks to the field fluorometer, multi-tracing is the rule Schnegg and Doerfliger However, a successful separation of tracers by the field fluorometer presupposes dissimilar spectral characteristics of each tracer Schnegg Careful selection of the set of tracers remains mandatory.
The field fluorometer conveniently replaces the water sampler. With this instrument there is no need for frequent sample collection and subsequent laboratory analysis of the samples. Very high time resolution is also of great interest.
However, the separation of two or three different dye tracers cannot be performed at the resolution achievable in the laboratory with a spectro-fluorometer. The optics of the field fluorometer is characterized by pass-band filters. To separate 2 or 3 dyes in a multi-tracer test, the fluorometer requires as many light sources usually LEDs as tracers, and detectors. Each optical channel is equipped with adequate optical filters. The unknown concentrations of each tracer are obtained by resolving in realtime a system of 2 or 3 linear equations Schnegg For optimal tracer separation, the determinant of the system of equations must be as large as possible.
For example, there is no chance to separate a cocktail of rhodamine B, G or WT. Even the sophisticated laboratory instrument will have trouble performing the separation. Two of them, naphtionate and amino G acid are much more discreet in the environment. This is because their excitation band is located in the UV part of the spectrum, and their emission is close to the short wavelength limit of visible light.
Yellow duasyne, a third, hardly visible tracer, was used jointly with the two other tracers. Quantities of 1 and 10 mg of each tracer were injected in turn at 2 minutes interval, so that the breakthrough curves would overlap, allowing thus for testing the separation method. The figure shows the three breakthrough curves after mathematical separation.
As expected, they display the same shape and height. Careful calibration of the fluorometer is important for achieving perfect separation. Behrens, H. Balkema, Rotterdam. Schnegg, P. L-band GHz microwave radiometry is a remote sensing technique to monitor soil moisture over land surfaces.
Monitoring the large scale moisture dynamics at the boundary between the deep bulk soil and the atmosphere provides essential information both for terrestrial and atmospheric modellers. Performing ground based radiometer campaigns before the mission launch, during the commissioning phase and during the operative SMOS mission is important for validating the satellite data and for the further improvement of the used radiative transfer models. This presentation is an example of research at the boundary between soil hydrology and remote sensing.
It starts with an overview of the SMOS mission followed by an outline of the basic concepts behind remote moisture retrieval from passive L-band radiation. Then the results from a selection of ground based microwave campaigns performed within the ETH domain during the last 7 years are presented. It feeds surface streams as well as aquatic ecosystems, and is the main drinking water resource in many countries. Switzerland is rich in groundwater due to favourable climatic, hydrological and hydrogeological conditions, i.
Knowledge about the extent of the resource is essential for sustainable groundwater management. This is of particular interest given the pressure on groundwater resources due to increasing water demand, intense underground engineering activities, and climate change. The Groundwater Resources Map of Switzerland on a , scale presents the yield of near-surface groundwater resources in a qualitative manner.
The map provides an inventory of hydrogeological units, subdivided according to high, moderate and low productivity, which is determined mainly by aquifer thickness and permeability. However, this map does not provide quantitative information in terms of the volume or the safe yield of groundwater resources. While the groundwater volume describes how much groundwater is available in the underground, the safe yield is defined as how much groundwater is renewable and can thus be used in a long-term and sustainable manner.
Both parameters are crucial for managing groundwater resources. To date, however, they have not been assessed in Switzerland on a national basis. A study was therefore conducted to evaluate the volume and safe yield of Swiss groundwater resources.
Specific approaches were developed in order to provide estimates for both parameters for the main aquifer types encountered i. Highly productive porous aquifers along large river valleys represent the main drinking water resources in Switzerland. The groundwater volume stored in such aquifers was assessed by considering aquifer geometry and porosity.
Estimating safe. In this case, a modelling approach for an extraction scenario along a river with typical aquifer characteristics provided maximum withdrawal rates. For porous aquifers not connected to surface streams, estimates of safe yield were derived solely from recharge by precipitation. In fissured aquifers, groundwater fills the pores and open fractures in the weathered part of consolidated rock.
Estimates of groundwater volume in fissured aquifers were made from tunnel inflow measurements at selected sites in crystalline alpine rocks. As fissured and karstified aquifers are discharged naturally by springs, discharge data from representative spring inventories were used to evaluate the safe yield for both aquifer types. Fractionation of REE distribution patterns in water samples have in the past been used to monitor processes such as surface and solution complexation or to identify precipitation and dissolution of specific mineral phases Gaillardet et al.
Colloids are organic or inorganic microscopic phases in a size range of about 0. The authors furthermore showed that this evolution is linked with the saturation index SI for Fe-oxyhydroxide goethite, Fig. This new analytical approach has been completed with computer modeling in order to evaluate in more detail the competition between organic and inorganic colloids on REE transport and fractionation in stream water. Acta 70, Gaillardet, J. In: Drever, J.
Elsevier, pp Pourret, O. Applied Geochem. Acta 71, Steinmann, M. This lake is characterized by a compact chemocline at 12 m depth with high concentrations of sulfate, steep gradients of oxygen, sulfide and light and a turbidity maximum that correlates to large numbers of bacteria mostly belonging to anerobic phototrophic sulfur bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Population analyses in water samples obtained from the chemocline have been performed regularly during the last 20 years using molecular methods as well as cultivation techniques.
The 16S rdna based clone library obtained from samples of the monimolimnion and the anoxic sediments of the meromictic Lake Cadagno allowed for the development of specific oligonucleotide probes and accurate FISH fluorescent in situ hybridization distribution analysis of bacterial populations. Phototrophic sulfur bacteria Lamprocystis, Thiodictyon forming syntrophic aggregates with sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfocapsa dominated the chemocline whereas members of the genus Desulfomonile were prominent in the monimolimnion and in the first centi-.
Moreover, in the chemocline, spatio-temporal analysis of bacterial populations over 2 decades revealed an initial dominance of Chromatiaceae C. This major change in community structure in the chemocline was probably due to extreme climatic events in autumn of the years and causing deep mixing of the waterbody which were accompanied by changes in profiles of turbidity and photosynthetically available radiation, as well as for sulfide concentrations and light intensity.
Overall, these findings suggest that the temporary disruption of the chemocline may have altered environmental niches and populations in subsequent years. References: Tonolla et al. The aim is to evaluate the DIC and its isotopic composition as a tracer for the geologic, biologic and anthropogenic contributions of carbon to the rivers and lakes.
The upper reaches of the Rhone and the Sarine typically have Alpine catchments characterized by thin or no soil covers with only sparse vegetation. Glacial melt waters and surface runoff make up the bulk of the water sources in their upper reaches. Further downstream other tributaries, themselves often being melt water fed but many also being exploited for hydroelectric power and thus with a number of dams along their course, join these rivers.
In addition, the vegetation and soil cover increases downstream in parallel with the agricultural exploitation, population density, and the number of WWT plants that generally pass their treated waste waters directly into the rivers. In contrast, rivers draining the Jura mountains do not have a glacial melt water source, nor are there major hydroelectric systems coupled to the river systems investigated.
The difference in geology of the catchment as well as the soil cover thickness and hence biologic activity in the soil are reflected by the C isotope composition of the DIC. The differences are most notable in dams and lakes, where vertical profiles are also well-established within the upper 5 to 10 m of the water column as a result of increasing photosynthesis during the warmer periods Fig. Contributions of organic carbon from WWT plants are clearly marked by 0. Such sources may also clearly be expressed by differences in H- and O-isotope compositions of the waters relative to the river or lake waters, as well as their sodium, potassium and nitrate contents, as well as the isotopic composition of the latter.
Note the high values at the surface during the summer July profile compared to the winter March profile typically indicating the bioproductivity in the photic zone during summer. Higher values at depths of 50 to m represent mixtures of the Rhone water rich in 13C descending to these depths within the lake, three months after a complete overturn of the lake at the end of February.
The hyporheic exchange processes vary both in time and space. For the assessment of water quality of both water bodies reliable models and measurements of the exchange rates and their variability are needed. Due to advances in sensor technique and data loggers, work on heat as a tracer in hydrological systems has increased recently, especially with focus on surface water groundwater interaction. DTS is based on the temperature dependence of Raman scattering. Light from a laser pulse is scattered along an optical fibre of up to several km length, which is the sensor of the DTS system.
By sampling the back-scattered light with high temporal resolution, the temperature along the fibre can be measured with high accuracy 0. Here, the river is losing. For estimation of seepage rates we measured highly resolved vertical temperature profiles in the river bed. To this end, we wrapped an optical fibre around a piezometer tube and measured the temperature distribution along the fibre. Due to the wrapping, we obtained a vertical resolution of approximately 5 mm. We analyzed the temperature time series by means of Dynamic Harmonic Regression as presented by Keery et al.
From the travel time and attenuation of the diurnal signal, we estimated the apparent velocity and diffusivity of temperature propagation, which then can be used to quantify infiltration rates. A particular strength of the new measurement technique lies in the high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling us to detect non-uniformity and temporal changes in vertical water fluxes.
Keery, A. Binley, N. Crook and J. Smith Temporal and spatial variability of groundwater surface water fluxes: Development and application of an analytical method using temperature time series, Journal of Hydrology, , Johanns-Vorstadt 10, CH Basel Natural springs are unique ecosystems that provide specific abiotic conditions, and they are stepping-stones between groundwater and surface water.
They appear in the landscape in various forms and are especially obvious in alpine regions. Springs are habitats for many freshwater organisms, which partly show a strong adaptation to the specific conditions in springs. As an alpine country Switzerland is rich of springs, but not many are still in a natural or at least near natural condition.
Despite their importance as unique habitats and despite their endangered situation they were not well studied until a few years ago. At the Institute of Biogeography from the University of Basel we investigate natural springs in the northern part of Switzerland and adjacent regions. The distribution of the spring fauna and the influence of abiotic parameters, especially discharge, are the main topics of our research. A first approach to a faunistic spring typology shows differences between springs based on the dominant feeding habits of the macrozoobenthic species.
They are related to abiotic parameters like substrate composition. Our goal is a spring typology for the whole country based on faunistic data. And also the colonisation of springs is an important part of our research. In a one-year field experiment in artificial springs we investigated the colonisation rate and the preferences of different substrates by macrozoobenthic organisms. Mesoscale analyses show that the colonisation occurs rapidly from the adjacent headwater and that the organisms prefer different substrate types for their settlement Porewater as an archive of the palaeo-hydrogeology during the Holocene and Pleistocene Waber H.
The second regime constitutes the low permeable rock matrix with the porewater residing in its connected pore space. The mass of porewater present in the rock matrix is, however, larger than in the fracture network even in crystalline rocks with a connected porosity of less than 1 Vol. Porewater in the rock matrix and groundwater in the fracture network always tend to reach chemical and isotopic equilibrium.
If solute transport in the rock matrix can be shown to occur by diffusion, then a chemical and isotopic signature established in the porewater at a certain time might be preserved over geologic time periods. Thus, porewater may act as an archive of the past fracture groundwater composition s and therefore of the palaeo-hydrogeological history of a site.
The degree of the preservation of such signatures depends on: 1 the distance of the porewater sample from the nearest water-conducting fracture in three dimensions, 2 the solute transport properties of the rock i. The frequent climatic and hydrogeologic changes during the Holocene and Pleistocene and related compositional changes in the fracture groundwater resulted in superimposed signatures in the porewater.
These can be unravelled to a large degree by the investigation of different, largely independent natural tracers in the porewater. Porewater in granitic and monzodioritic rocks from Laxemar-Oskarshamn, central Sweden, are of different chemical and isotopic composition in bedrock characterised by high transmissivity and a high frequency of water-conducting fractures at shallow to intermediate depth m b.
The oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition indicates a formation from meteoric infiltration under different climatic conditions. Exchange with fracture groundwater composed of present-day brackish water of the Baltic Sea is limited and absent for the earlier Baltic Sea stages Yoldia, ka BP; saline Littorina, ka BP. Farther away from water-conducting fractures, Na-HCO 3 type porewater signatures with low Cl - concentrations indicate an evolution from Pleistocene fracture groundwater of warm climate origin possibly Eemian Interglacial and cold climate periods early Weichselian or older.
Depending on borehole location this porewater type occurs from about m and m depth over a restricted interval of about m. Highly variable Cl - concentrations 2. Chemical and isotopic composition of these porewater types cannot be explained by interaction with a known type of fracture groundwater and more advanced rock-water interaction.
They appear to have formed from interaction with cryogenic brines that formed during permafrost conditions and which migrated downwards in the fractures by buoyancy effects. The large distance to the nearest water-conducting fracture of this porewater type suggests that these signatures have been established before the Last Glacial Maximum. Here, Cl- contents vary between about 0. At these low-transmissivity depths, the porewaters display complex, superimposed signatures that cannot be resolved based on the present data.
In the deepest samples, however, a component of a deep saline brine seems to be present similar as observed in fractures at even greater depth. The data indicate that the palaeo-hydrogeological evolution of a site indeed can be re-constructed based on porewater data.
In addition, signatures no longer present in the fracture groundwaters can be identified. If substances like persistent organic compounds or heavy metals from contaminated sites migrate into the groundwater, an immediate and sustainable suppression of the source is required. However, in most cases the groundwater in its downstream flow will stay contaminated over a long time. On duty of the society and the environment to provide for safe water, the remediation of polluted groundwater is both an essential and ambitious task.
Consultant geologists in cooperation with chemical laboratories generally are keen now in assessing the type, amount and distribution of contaminants in groundwater. But after one decade of the commitment by law to remediate the sins of yesterday, the scientific and technical knowledge on approved procedures to clean spoiled groundwater is still poor.
On the one hand research institutes mostly experience at laboratory scale only. At the other hand, the party responsible for a contaminated groundwater plume is interested in fast solutions, and not in making expensive attempts without a guaranty of a long lasting achievement. Researchers from the university and professionals from consulting companies can complement one another in creating new technologies. Research, development and implementation of new technologies can profit from the Nine Laws of God governing the incubation of something from nothing Kelly, Taking as an example the project to reduce the charge of he-.
In designing a PRB as a passive remediation method the crucial aspects are what to take as the reactive material and of course how well the contaminants are treated after the installation of such a PRB. Interestingly large differences in the reaction rates among various types of iron shavings were observed. Looking at the various shavings under the scanning electron microscope we came up with the conclusion that reaction rates are highly correlated with the nature of the carbon inclusions within the iron matrix of the shavings.
In order to estimate the success of future barrier operations geochemical models are cheap and powerful tools Steefel, Using the data of the lab experiments the geochemical reactive transport model and reaction network of Mayer et al. The calibrated model was used to simulate the hydrodynamics and hydrogeochemistry within the double pile-array of the barrier in 2D. Examples of model outcomes are illustrated in figure 1.
The modelling work clearly points out that the limiting factors in the performance of the PRB are the groundwater flow velocity, the permeability of the piles and the groundwater chemistry. Hermanns-Stengele, R. Mayer, U. Blowes, D. Water Resources Research 38, Steefel C. DePaolo, D. The locks were up to 23 metres 75 ft deep. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Major river in Switzerland and France. Not to be confused with Rhine. Mediterranean Basin Water Atlas.
ISBN There are few rivers with an abundant flow. Inland Waterways of France. St Ives, Cambs. National Map — 78 sheets and 25 composites in German. Cartography by Swiss Federal Office for Topography, swisstopo. Retrieved It is renowned for its sunny and dry microclimate. The vineyards line the north slopes of the Rhone valley, rising up narrow, steep terraces and overlooked by snow covered peaks.
March John T. Koch ed. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Cruising French Waterways 4th ed. Sheridan House. Started in February , the construction of the dam has now been completed and on January 15th, , was commenced the operation of filling the dam with water, which extended over six days. Review Publishing Company Limited. With this water, 5 generators of 90, H.
French Waterways. Retrieved June 10, Authority control. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.
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