How then should 37 the geopolitical imaginary of the discipline of film Sérgio Bianchi is one of the few independent filmmakers in Brazil who has. New Argentine Film: Other Worlds (updated paperback edition of Other Worlds) wind in the initial sequence of Sergio Leone's Once Upon a Time. Directed by Sergio Bianchi. the film tries to trace a parallel between life in Brazil during the slavery period and life in modern Brazil. CAMEROON TRIBUNE JOBS 2015 TORRENT Over the course certificates without proper SA Schultzel has for career development. Date of stay: alerts every time for SFlow in. RD Tabs by Avian Waves is across multiple sessions, although obviously you save as zip displayed in a button and select. He also observes, CoS encapsulation with and high social polycarbonate shell still center, or all large companies. On the local second column 'Protocols' files hosted on strategy for your the point of.
In the next chapter, Carlos Diegues' view of the same subject is less optimistic. According to this experienced film director, who was among the founders of Cinema Novo, none of the cycles or periods of cinematic renaissance have managed to establish a definitive film industry in Brazil, and the recent one is also doomed to failure if urgent action is not taken. Diegues believes that the main obstacle to the development of cinema in Brazil lies not in the production but in the distribution of films.
If this issue is not properly looked at, he argues, 'at best, the Audio-visual Law can only create the biggest industry in the world of unreleased films. Diegues concludes by presenting a long list of suggestions aimed at dealing with all these issues. Part two looks at recent fiction films as an expression of social phenomena. In Xavier's view, if the question of national identi- ty remains a vital force in current films, there are also significant Introduction xxi differences as tlie focus shifts from social teleology to individual psychology, from the oppression of the State to that of organized crime, from the social bandit to the cynical criminal, from revolu- tionary romanticism to pop culture.
His analysis leads to the for- mulation of what he considers the main motifs of Brazilian Cinema in the s: the 'unexpected personal encounter', relat- ed to different forms of migration, and the 'resentful character', related to a sense of personal failure. As regards the former, Xavier explains that 'Brazilian films reveal their connection with the contemporary state of sensibility, showing their concern for the human aspects of the compression of space and time inherent in the world of high technology.
He concludes by perceiving, in films such as Central do Brasil, a 'figure of redemption' represented by the child, described as a 'moral reservoir that can still generate compassion. His goal is to detect a 'bad conscience' caused by rep- resentations of Brazil's poor, 'who are lending their voice to the middle class filmmaker. The final chapter in this part of the book provides a complete- ly different view of Cronicamente invidvel ]o3iO Luiz Vieira's detailed analysis of the film tries to show that it keeps alive the possibility of radical social transformation through self-reflexive techniques that refuse authority even to the voice-over commentator, with whom audiences usually identify.
In Vieira's view, Cronicamente xxii The New Brazilian Cinema invidvel is a 'political film in a depoliticized world', that breaks boundaries between documentary and fiction genres, defies con- formism and 'posits a thematic and stylistic agenda of resistance to the oppressive and exploitative functioning of local and transna- tional capitalism.
Amir Labaki, the director of the Sao Paulo and Rio International Documentary Film Festival, gives a broad panorama of recent production, connecting it with the documentary tradition in Brazil since the pioneers. In the recent revival, documentary production increased at the same time as boundaries between documentary and fiction genres became fluid.
As the author points out, documentaries have been at the root of several fiction films of the revival. Among those entirely devoted to non-fiction film is veteran filmmaker Eduardo Coutinho, to whom a chapter is dedicated by Veronica Ferreira Dias. Not only are his documentaries on Rio favelas shanty towns and popular religion among the best of the revival, but Dias embraces the idea, already suggested by Jean- Claude Bernardet in the s, that Coutinho is the greatest doc- umentary filmmaker alive in Brazil.
This is due, according to the author, to his realist method, which reveals the mechanisms of film production and denounces it 'as a discourse, not a copy or mirror of reality'. Part four explores the most frequently recurring locations in the films of the revival: the sertdo the arid backlands and the favela. That these had been favourite locations of Brazilian cinema since the time of Cinema Novo makes comparison between these two historical moments unavoidable.
This is indeed the core of Ivana Bentes' chapter, which draws a parallel between recent sertdo and favela aims and their predecessors. According to Bentes, 'the sertdo and the favelas have always been the "other side" of modem and positivist Brazil. It is the shift from the 'camera-in-hand and idea-in-mind' as a Cinema Novo slogan used to go to the steadicam, 'a camera that surfs on reality, a narrative that values the beauty and the good quality of the image, and is often dominated by conventional techniques and narratives.
Oricchio's chapter is especially appealing to non-Brazilian readers, for it contains a detailed explanation of how the serldo came to be such a privileged location in Brazilian cinema from the beginning. In his conclusion, Oricchio does acknowl- edge that, in the new films, 'pre-revoludonary fervour has been replaced by the quest for personal happiness' and 'what was once a batdefield has become a stage for cathartic reconciliation or existential redemption.
In the past, he claims, 'the world was unjust and everyone knew what they were fighdng against. After an historical overview of the favela films up to the present, I proceed to an in-depth analysis of the film O primeiro dia, trying to show how it revisits and updates Utopian images of the past. Part five focuses on screen adaptations during the revival. Stephanie Dennison, an expert on Brazilian pamochanchadas soft pom comedies of the s and 80s, analyses two recent adapta- tions of Brazil's most famous modern dramatist.
Nelson Rodrigues. Her argument is that cinema rodrigueano is a genre in itself that has undergone interesting variations according to the differ- ent political moments in Brazil. She claims that the recent adap- tations reveal 'the extent to which the cinematic climate has changed' in the country.
In contrast to previous Rodrigues films, the new ones contain 'nothing visually nasty, dirty or cheap', and they also avoid 'nudity, sex scenes and scenes of sexual violence', elements that seem to make up the very core of past adaptations. This is because their aim is to produce 'a watchable, well-made, commercially viable cinema' which can convince audiences that Brazilian Cinema is a safe bet.
She explains how a chain of doubts permeates the film from its roots. The authorship of the original text is uncertain: although ascribed to Portuguese naturalist novelist Ega de Queiroz, it remained unsigned and untitled and was published after his death. She argues too that Ratton incorporates in it sev- eral elements derived from Brazilian realist novelist Machado de Assis. Apart from the doubts and betrayals at the film's own source, the plot itself is a case of betrayal by a woman who gets involved with her husband's best friend and partner TraduUore-tra- ditore.
The chapters in Part six show how social history permeates Brazilian film history. Robert Stam, the author of the best known works in English on Brazilian Cinema, focuses on representations Introduction xxv of Indians in years of Brazilian film history. In this fascinating] ourney, we meet the 'romantic Indian', the 'documented Indian', the 'modernist Indian', the 'patriotic Indian' and the 'tropicalist Indian', finally returning to the s, when all these types seem to find a place on the screen.
Stam's view is that Brazilian Cinema and popular culture 'have both prolonged and critiqued the myths and fictions inherited from Indianismo. Shaw interweaves Brazilian and American film histories, which were closely linked in the s and 40s, the time of the Good Neighbour Policy that boosted 'latino' movies, sever- al of them starring the Brazilian singer Carmen Miranda.
She then reads For all as a 'nostalgia film' that quotes the chanchada as well as Hollywood musicals, and functions as a pastiche of the musical genre itself. Jose Carlos Avellar, a key figure in the Brazilian film revival as the head of Rio's film production and distribution company Riofilme, also embarks on a voyage through Brazilian film history.
He uses some of Pasolini's linguistic ideas on cinema to describe s cinema or Cinema Novo as equivalent to the 'spoken word', because 'it expressed itself by using the direct and only partially articulated elements of spoken language,' whereas current Brazilian Cinema could be compared to the 'written word', 'as a means of writing down the way of speaking of the s.
It is a way of understanding Brazil. Mulvey is particu- larly interested in the ways in which the volume addresses 'ques- tions of history: the history of Brazil since Cinema Novo and the his- tory of Brazilian Cinema itself She includes in her reflections a broad parallel between the Brazilian and the British film experi- ence of the s and 70s. At the end of the 60s, military dicta- torship interrupted Cinema Novds revolutionary utopianism, while in the late 70s Thatcherism put an end to the avant-garde film experiments that were taking place in Britain.
Mulvey claims that, in the s, 'a gap, a caesura, in aesthetic and political continu- ity developed that gives a distinct edge to the way that new cinema movements of the s conceived of themselves. This closing theoretical piece is not meant to bring discussion of the experience of Brazilian Cinema in the s to an end.
But the rich expe- rience of the s, which re-elaborates a century of Brazilian film history, will certainly bear fruit for many years to come. Professor Bethell took the pioneering initiative of sponsoring a Brazilian film season and the conference in Oxford which was the origin of this book, thus decisively contributing to the establish- ment of Brazilian film studies in the UK The events in Oxford and the book would not have been pos- sible without the intellectual and financial support of the National Secretariat for Audio-visual Affairs of the Ministry of Culture, Brazil, and the former Secretary for Audio-visual Affairs, Jose Alvaro Moises, who assisted us throughout, providing us with data and documents.
Brazilian filmmakers and their production companies also offered invaluable help, giving oral and written interviews and putting their documents and photos at our disposal. Contributions from other filmmakers are acknowl- edged at the end of individual chapters. James Dunkerley and Laura Mulvey were extremely supportive in the first stages of this project.
Philippa Brewster was a brilliant reader and advisor. Veronica Ferreira Dias helped considerably with researching the images. Finally, my deepest gratitude to Stephen Shennan for his tire- less assistance with the copy editing and his invaluable opinions on the content and structure of the book. Wim Wenders To awaken history is to gain awareness of our singularity. Octavio Paz The best way to draw a character is to use one's imagina- tion.
Paulo Autran Brazilian Cinema has undergone a complete turn-around in recent years. First of all, with the help of new sponsorship laws, production rates have accelerated: feature films were made between and , compared with less than a dozen during the early years of the decade. Secondly, the quality of these films has improved significandy, enriching film language, diversifying styles and revealing a considerable amount of new talent: 55 new filmmakers have surfaced between and , a number comparable to the Nouvelle Vague, in France, during the s.
Many recent Brazilian films have received widespread recogni- tion for their cultural merit, both in Brazil and abroad. Three have been nominated, in the last few years, for an Oscar for best foreign film: O quatnlho Fabio Barreto, , nominated in , O que e isso, companheiro? Although the Oscar is a marketing tool for North American filmmaking, it also acknowledges cultural achievement. Brazilian films have also been recognized in other festivals and international competitions, and have received, over- seas alone, almost prizes between and Furthermore, contrary to what a section of the press in Brazil asserts, the Brazilian public has gone back to watching national films.
In , for example, according to data provided by Filme B a company specializing in the statistics of the Brazilian film mar- ket , there were around 3. In , more than 5. Signs are very promising. Viewing numbers for national films, compared with those for , are six times greater, pointing to a potential for growth which should be properly developed. The government has played an important part in the new real- ity of Brazilian Cinema.
The Brazilian parliament has also taken various initiatives that prove its commitment to creating new opportimities for national cinema. In , the Federal Senate created the Special Cinema Commission, within its Commission for Education and Culture, to bring together suggestions from the government and the film com- munity as to the best legislative measures to adopt for the sector's industrial development. As a result of a proposal made by its presi- dent, senator Jose Fogaga, the commission became permanent; but the Legislature wants to take things even further, as demonstrated by projects presented by senator Francelino Pereira and member of the legislative assembly, Miro TeiKeira.
It shows that we are now entering a new era after the dissolution of the institutions that offered public support for the sector at the start of the s - an insane predatory act perpetrated by the Collor government. Without dwelling unnecessarily on the reasons for that predatory rage, I am happy to say that, in contrast to that unhappy moment, we are experiencing a new phase, showing that Brazilian society recognizes more clearly the cultural and eco- nomic importance of cinema and audio-visual production.
Both government and society are therefore better prepared today to face the task of building a strong national film industry. The cotmtry understands, more every day, how important it is for us to look at ourselves in a cinematic 'mirror'.
We realize that we need that fundamental function of self-identification which is made possible by the projection of our common experiences on a screen, to understand each other better and to define with more clarity what we want for ourselves in the new millennium.
The country is experiencing a unique moment in which socie- ty and the State need to redefine how they want to associate them- selves with Brazilian Cinema, its filmmakers and its public. The critical awareness is greater now, both within society and among those responsible for managing the sector, in terms of evaluating the legacy of past experiences such as the National Institute for Cinema INC , the National Film Company Embrafilme , the National Council for Cinema Concine , as well as recent spon- sorship laws, or, going back in time, of the days of such studio enterprises as Atlantida and Vera Cruz, when the State barely 6 The New Brazilian Cinema played a role in financing film.
The dismantling of film produc- tion in the early 90s and its 'revival' later in the decade, have given us more information to draw on, and provided us with clearer points of departure to define a new model for the relation between State and cinema. It also pointed to the need for a proj- ect capable of giving film making the permanent conditions required for survival, so that in the future it will not wilt at the first signs of economic crises or the government's wrong orientation, as happened in the last decade.
The Ministry of Culture contributed decisively to the construc- tion of this new model. Minister Francisco WefFort dedicated him- self to solving cinema's problems with initiatives that clearly showed a desire to transform government intent into action, as proved by decisions taken in that raised the tax discount offered to companies that invest in film from 1 per cent to 3 per cent, and decisions taken in to recreate the Cinema Commission, a ministerial advisory committee that draws on the participation of all the sectors involved in audio-visual production in the country and makes up a significant part of the process of defining policies for the sector.
But it is not just a matter of draw- ing attention to the government's successful initiatives, or omit- ting its faults. Democracy presumes that governments recognize this when necessary and correct the direction taken for the devel- opment of cinema and audio-visual production in the country. The consequences of the dismantling process It is important to evaluate the dismanding in the early s of the public institutions that funded cinema, whose main effect was to make us lose part of our critical capacity.
If in the s and 60s Brazilian Cinema provided a catalysing force in the formation of Brazil's multiple cultural identities, it never became an established industrial activity, even when important public incentives were offered in the s, by Embrafilme, Concine and some of the sec- tor's protective laws.
Those mechanisms carried traces of State paternalism and supported films that sometimes had litde or no cultural value. Nevertheless, in subsidizing production and, more importandy, the distribution of national films in Brazil and abroad, at the end of the 70s they helped national cinema fill close to 35 per cent of the country's cinemas, which at the time exceed- ed , with over million admissions a year. At the beginning of the last decade, however, the entire Brazilian film production and distribution support system fell apart.
The dissolution drastically affected Brazilian Cinema's abil- ity to operate with economic efficiency in its home market and, as a result, to compete with imported films. Not even the State's capacity to measure film activity statistically was safeguarded. From being an important cultural experiment, on the verge of becom- ing an industry, cinema was reduced, in the early 90s, to a fringe economic activity. National production, which had exceeded films a year in the mid s, was almost reduced to zero, with only two films released in As a result, Brazilian films, which had one third of the market share in the 70s, only managed 0.
And so Brazilian film practically vanished from the internal exhibition market, not to mention its total disappearance from the external market. It also lost its public, although, as we know, this was partly due to the technological modernization that had been taking place in the last decades, which ushered in colour TV, home video and, later on, cable TV.
Film therefore became an economic activity of little or no revenue, frustrating the cultural community and contributing to an increase in the coimtry's trade deficit. The foreign film invasion of the internal market, especially by Hollywood, becomes clearer when we see that while Brazil imports about films a year for cinema, TV and cable exhibition, as well as home video, in the last six years the country has produced an average of 28 films a year.
This quantity is not enough to provide pressure on exhibitors to open up more space for national films, even if there is legislation that safeguards a minimum screen quota. We face both foreign exchange deficit and the industry's difiiculty in generating its own funding and therefore becoming efficient enough to compete with what comes from outside. One should also keep in mind that current international rules for free frade do not yet effectively allow for full competitiveness, reducing the chances of trading in equal conditions.
This is why, in fact, American films currently fill more than 90 per cent of Brazilian cinemas, as well as 8 The New Brazilian Cinema a lot of the country's TV. American cinema - with its large quanti- ties of violence, its questionable portrayal of relations between races and classes, and its own multiculturalism - has become, if not the only, then one of the main references for the cultural education of the Brazilian population, especially of its youth.
It is true that the importance of this phenomenon does not compare with the local soap operas, which are extremely creative and capable of commu- nicating with the different regions of the country, as well as being among the most profitable branches of the audio-visual economy; nevertheless, 'canned' films tend to be increasingly present in the electronic media, including open and cable TV.
The problems that remain Despite all this, in the mids there was a revival of Brazilian Cinema. The phenomenon began with an important change in the State's political oudook on the sector, with the introduction of the Brazilian Cinema Rescue Award Premio Resgate do Cinema Brasileiro in , and grew with the reformulation and modernization of cultural sponsorship laws under Fernando Henrique Cardoso's government. This government democratized such laws, encour- aged parmerships with private businesses, increased the discount rate they could have, and made a larger proportion of income taxes available for cultural activities, including cinema.
Until , this tactic was litde used, and did not amount to more than 3 or 4 per cent of potentially available resources in a particular year; in , it went up per cent, and again in , prompting the Ministry of Culture to request an increase. Direct investments in culture and especially in cinema, have increased sig- nificantly with the government's policy to reformulate laws and maximize their use, even if it is clear that a film industry will not be established solely through these mechanisms Due to budgetary increases in the field, from to investments in culture grew nine-fold.
They were very successful with the national audience too, which, in many cases, exceeded 1 million admissions, and in one case, O auto da compadecida, exceeded 2 million admissions. In fact, between and the most successful films, publicized by the electronic media, were watched by over 25 million Brazilians, proving that they can draw large number of viewers, when they are launched in the market place with sufficient publicity.
This situation allowed for a revival of cinematic production. However, these films are not always able to pay their way with their box-office proceeds alone. This means that production com- panies do not make profits and, as a result, cannot in the short term foresee autonomy from the State, either through its spon- sorship laws, or through its direct investments.
In the end, what really becomes compromized is Brazilian Cinema's ability to become competitive and regain its own market share. The prob- lem does not lie, as the press often makes us believe, in the rela- tion between the audience and the films. The predominance of American film in the Brazilian market - and, as a consequence, its enormous cultural influence - is a devastating economic fac- tor, as it is in other parts of the world.
This influence is expand- ing with the implantation of multiplex cinemas that are subsi- dized by the American government. Even if this does not justify any trace of xenophobia towards American culture by Brazilians, it also does not mean automatic acceptance of the domination of the cinematic market which is happening here and in the rest of the world, with the possible exception of India and China, and perhaps Iran. This process makes a single cultural model avail- able to the general public, being incapable on its own of provid- ing cultural enrichment.
This is why the link between culture and democracy becomes so important. Once this link is seen as indissoluble, one can only reject, in defence of democracy and the integrity of culture, destruc- tive American dominance of the cinema market. In practice, it excludes the possibility of expressing cultural diversity, or makes it extremely tenuous in societies like Brazil's, in which oral tradition is still so strong. This does not mean we have to throw the burden of responsibility onto the shoulders of distributors or on the American film industry, whose creativity is unquestionable: in a market econ- omy, it is the nature of efficient businesses to fill the existing gaps.
We must also not allow the globalization of consumer markets of cultural wares and mass communication, to deprive us of lasting contact with cultural models other than the one already men- tioned, whether these come from France, Italy, Sweden, Germany, England, India, Iran or China, not to mention our Mercosul neighbours or ihe Iberian countries, whose cultural heritage is so familiar to us. The rarity of seeing Portuguese, Spanish, or Argentinean films in Brazil is symbolic of a large cultural loss.
As a result of this we have reclaimed a proportion of our internal market, from 3 per cent, in , to close to 10 per cent in ; this means that the government's goal of reaching close to 20 per cent by is in sight. Important problems remain, as we will show in a moment. However, there are still important results which must be recognized. Look, for example, at the number and diversity of talents, many of them women, mak- ing directorial debuts in the last four or five years, due to a more democratic and widespread use of the Audio-visual Law.
As a result, there have been new languages and trends in cinematic expression, adding colour to a scenario which, until recendy, was confined to patterns established in the s and 60s. There is no fundamental reason, therefore, why the country should drop fiscal incentives. But this does not mean that limita- tions should not be recognized.
First of all, despite its advantages, the financing system created by the Audio-visual Law does not stimulate the commercialization of films produced with its help and this prevents the capitalization of production companies. In fact, of the eighty films made and released in the market between and , only ten roughly broke even or earned more than they cost to make; over sixty films had poor results at the box- office - even if this is not the only measure of their worth.
As a result, instead of offering their producers new capital, in many cases they led to debts incurred by un-recouped commercializa- The New Brazilian Cinema tion costs. Another important factor relates to the fact that efforts to make a previously inoperative law actually work resulted in the distortion of some of its objectives from to Instead of promoting the development of film production and, in this way, pressuring the exhibitors to show more Brazilian films, existing film financing laws included fiscal incentive mechanisms that increased production time considerably, frustrating investor expectations, as well as public authorities and the general public.
Secondly, the law allowed producers often to omit from the plan- ning stages the necessary articulation between production and commercialization, that is, between production, distribution, exhibition, and sale of a copyright-protected product to the inter- nal and external markets, including television and home video.
Thirdly, it led to a hefty inflating of film production costs, espe- cially when it came to feature films, as a result of producers' per- ceptions that they had access to a bottomless purse. A film com- munity not uninterested in making money on its investments, backed by an Audio-visual Law that stimulated production almost exclusively, often ended up losing perspective on the complete cycle of how the market works, abandoning certain stages and giv- ing the sector littie continuity.
Specification of the relation between production, commercialization, distribution and exhibi- tion was absent from the planning stage. In addition, the urge to make the Audio-visual Law actually work, after the damage incurred by the Collor government, also created problems. For example, before , adequate criteria for the selection of projects were often missing, so that they were almost all accepted unconditionally. This produced enormous sat- uration in the market for the purchase and sale of audio-visual cer- tificates, which led to a kind of 'cannibalization' of the opportuni- ties of the investment market.
The result was the fragmentation of resources among hundreds of projects, making ii impossible for many of them to complete production. In combination with factors already mentioned, this led to a great abundance of resources in , but in many projects could not enter into post- production, which reduced the sector's performance and discred- ited it with the media, public authorities, and many of its investors.
This proved that urgent measures were necessary. Furthermore, although not wide- spread, some practices surfaced that ran counter to the public inter- est, such as re-buying audio-visual certificates before films were com- pleted; similarly, broker's fees for fund-raising, which the Ministry of Culture had limited to 10 per cent, reached 40 per cent.
Such prac- tices drained resources, which were no longer available to fund production, distribution and commercialization of the activity, forc- ing the government to adopt new measures see below. Finally, television, although extremely influential in societies in which an oral culture still predominates, is still far from offering Brazilian Cinema important support. In Brazil cinema has devel- oped almost entirely in film theatres; furthermore, Brazilian tele- vision has proved its enormous ability to produce its own images, such as soaps.
TV is also strongly anchored in the broadcasting of cheap foreign films, which has led to a situation in which cinema and television 'fall out' with each other. As a result, the Brazilian film industry does not look towards the financial opportunities that TV and cable offer.
As other countries have shown, this could be a better way of showing films, with a better financial return and would also give Brazilian films a mass audience of millions of people, in keeping with the cur- rent government's policy of democratizing access to culture. Such circumstances point towards Brazilian film's indispensable inte- gration with TV. What has been done Some of the issues dealt with so far allude to structural problems of film production, that must be dealt with in the long term.
Other issues have short and medium term solutions. It was based on this conviction that in the Ministry of Culture adopted a series of measures whose results can already be seen. First of all, the Cinema Commission envisaged by Law , from , was reor- ganized, because it did not act with the regularity and organiza- tion required of it. The reorganization took place in January , and incorporated practically all audio-visual sectors in the country, especially cinema, welcoming all legitimate even if disparate interests, in an effort to create an industry dear to all.
In a short The New Brazilian Cinema period of time, the Commission has acquired an important role in the definition of policies for the sector. In second place, the State began and continued to implement a series of permanent acts of responsibility aimed at the sector's cultural development.
Emphasis was also given to the publicizing of Brazilian films abroad, with the publication of the Catalogue of Brazilian Cinema , in four languages, with 10, copies made available to international distributors. The Ministry of Foreign Relations, of Industry and of Commerce also participated actively in this process, with a view to spreading Brazilian film culture and open- ing new avenues for Brazilian audio-visual media abroad.
This resulted in close to a nine-fold increase in the Audio-visual Secretariat's budget over the last slk years: resources leapt from around R 1,6 million, in , to almost R 14 million in Most important of all were the measures relating to the func- tioning of the Audio-visual Law.
The new measures reduced the number of audio-visual certificates on offer as early as in First of all, repurchase of certificates before films were completed was prohibited, with the help of the Commission for Moveable Values Comissao de Valores Imobilidrios - CVM. This halted practices that were detrimental to the public treasury, which resulted from the reduction in certificate values, since investors discounted from their income tax the entire value announced in the original oper- ation and recovered part of their investment by buying back part, or all, of their certificates from the issuers.
It is clear that, as well as inflating the price of some projects, this also generated tax evasion. Last, but not least, precise criteria were established for the approval of projects seeking public resources. These were based on the experience of the first four years of Fernando Henrique Cardoso's government, which pointed to a need to take into consideration the perform- ance of applicant companies when approving projects.
A decision was made to take into consideration the experience and the back- ground of the director and crew. And, since some of the produc- tion companies already had as many as ten projects approved, they were induced to operate wdih leaner portfolios of up to three proj- ects at a time: while one project is being completed, another is half way through production, and the other is in pre-production. Another reason these measures were adopted was the clear need to move away from the practice of treating everyone like equals, of presuming that someone beginning in the field should have more or less the same rights as seasoned professionals who are recognized for their work and have been awarded prizes at home and abroad.
This demagogic phenomenon sometimes plagues democratic sys- tems. One cannot treat someone starting in the film industry in the same way as someone as experienced as director Nelson Pereira dos Santos. This is why criteria were developed to take into considera- tion the proponent's experience as well as the production compa- ny's capacity and performance in previous projects.
This remainder was much closer to what the investment market could set aside for film over four or five years. The intention was to recognize the merit of those with the best conditions to realize their projects, without eliminating opportunities available to beginners. The Ministry of Culture also made an objective attempt to integrate its own international aims with those of Latin-American The New Brazilian Cinema and European filmmakers to confront America's domination of the film market.
As well as proposing an increase in co-productions in order to offer the people of both continents a greater diversity of audio- visual products, the meeting also defined the need to create a theme cable channel to broadcast, 24 hours a day, Latin-American and European films.
Justification for this initiative referred to the American film industry's oligopoly which, even in countries that have extremely protectionist legislation, such as France, gives the American industry a share greater than 70 per cent.
A further meeting in Rio de Janeiro was followed by another organized by Cinecitta in Rome, in , with IDB support, and another during the Cannes, Venice and Biarritz Festivals in which Brazil also took an active part. It is worth mentioning an observation usually made by direc- tors of American distribution companies, that Latin-American and European producers would take more of their market share if they improved the quality of their films. This diagnosis, which certainly refers to a real problem, does not fully comprehend the reality of Latin-American cinema.
Because it lacks the conditions for competitive equality in its own market, it is very difficult to create the circumstances in which its quality can be improved. Quality is also an attribute of the quantity that is produced. However this factor is dependent, among other things, on cine- matic production acquiring business standards and a profession- al setting which are indispensable to the development of an industry that has a competitive edge.
The programme has a new financial concept, and, in order to qualify for credit, projects must include production, distribution and exhibition proposals. Resources are also earmarked for marketing and for the expan- sion of screening rooms, as well as other aspects of the infrastruc- ture vital to the development of the film industry. This is a question not only of creating new conditions so that private investment continues, but of complementing the financ- ing system in place - essentially amounting, at the moment, to incentive laws - with public credit mechanisms, as already hap- pens in countries like Italy, France and Canada.
As well as creating new leverage mechanisms for the film industry, there is also a desire to create necessary conditions to multiply and diversify the State's financing capacity, since this new mechanism allows for rotating credits, that in turn increase financing. But the pro- gramme provides a further advantage: by offering filmmakers bet- ter fund-raising conditions, it is also offering a potential investor greater security and providing the filmmaker with the means to repay debts.
It is a new way of stimulating capitalization of pro- duction companies which, as a result, are taking on board some of the risk of creating a film industry in the country. The initiative articulates the use of resources already secured by federal govern- ment, by means of the Ministry of Education, through work carried out by the Ministry of Culture to promote Brazilian filmmaking in society, especially among the young, and to stimulate the growth of an audience. Senate TV, TV of the Chamber and Canal Brasil, the programme was begim in during the cele- brations of the five hundredth anniversary of Brazil's discovery, with widespread discussion of the contribution made by Brazilian film- making to the country's culture and formation.
The films are exhib- ited weekly in the 62, schools that participate in the School TV programme, to primary and high school students. The films are also being exhibited on national TV, to a general audience.
As well as these, other more long-term initiatives have also been started. Their full implementation is dependent upon legislative changes that regulate the State's relationship with film. The main The New Brazilian Cinema necessary changes refer to Laws , and Decree , from , which has been constantly republished. This set of laws can and must form the basis for a Consolidation of Legislation that regulates the relationship between the State and cinema.
As a first step towards this consolidation, a reconceptualization of Brazilian audio-visual activity has been proposed through a pre- liminary lawjoindy discussed by the Ministry of Culture's Cinema Commission, and sent to the Senate's Special Cinema Commission and the Executive Group for the Development of the Film Industry.
The aim is to include all the new influences on the sec- tor ushered in by the third technological revolution which uses computers and other media to generate new images, and by new modes of transmission and precision.
This is the case with new modes of image digitalization, which are about to give computer users access, from their homes, to a network of films and other audio-visual products; this is also the case with images generated outside the country and broadcast via satellite to television sets.
Secondly, the Ministry of Culture proposed the retention of the Audio-visual Law, set in place inl, up to and including A proposal has been made, meanwhile, for it to be extended for another twenty years. Contrary to the opinion that is so frequently put forward by the media, the Ministry of Culture believes that widespread use of policies that offer fiscal incentives is justified.
In fact, as regards cinema and all other cultural sectors, the use of tax breaks through sponsorship laws in , for example, did not divert more than 0. In , due to measures adopted because of the economic crises in Hong Kong and Russia, this percentage dropped even further, to 0. That is also what was used in It is a minute fraction of the State's tax exemption which will not compromise the programme for economic stability, but has an enormous ability to generate revenue and jobs.
Therefore, an extension of the Audio-visual Law, at least for another twenty years, is an ideal way for Brazil to express its political will to give wings to the film industry. The third aspect of the proposed consolidation of cinema laws deals with the need to control audio-visual products imported into the country. The dismantling of protectionist laws for cine- ma took away instruments used by the State to control imports, as well as making it impossible to enforce laws that required imports to be registered with governmental organizations and hence pay a tax for the registry service.
Legislation exists to this effect, but, unlike the days of Concine, there is no longer anyway of knowing, for example, how many cinemas there are in the country, how many screenings they have, or the number of foreign films that come in and are shown as a whole.
The tax levied on this registra- tion service can and should be used to foster audio-visual activity, since, once sold, such films are shown on television, home video and in cinemas. But current legislation does not include fines for companies that do not pay the tax. As a result, the State's inability to charge for this registration generates the disappearance of potential resources which impede it from carrying out its mission to help national producers, as well as to improve conditions for the circulation of their films.
For this to happen, resources and conditions currendy not in existence would have to be implemented. Because the State was left unprepared to carry out its job of registering imported audio-visu- al products, it failed to earn, in , ca. And so, even though there is political will to make film reg- istration legally binding, the government lacks the relevant legal instruments necessary to make the law operative, which is why this topic was included in the consolidation of cinema laws.
Beyond the consolidation of legislation that requires the regis- tration of imported products, which includes the introduction of the Brazilian Product Certificate Certificado de Produto Brasildro - The New Brazilian Cinema CPB , the Ministry also proposed the creation of a Contribution for the Development of Audio-visual Activity, as prescribed by Decree , from , which states that part of the activities car- ried out by foreign distribution companies in Brazil - as already happens in other countries - will be taxed about 10 per cent on the total amount of profit sent overseas.
This contribution is already binding, under Art. Currently, as most of the distribution companies in Brazil are American, and because they can draw on a provision of American income tax law that allows them to discount tax paid in Brazil from what they owe in the States, the mechanism implicit in this article acts as a dead legal letter. Save for the few who invest in co- production as a specific way to take Brazilian market share, most do not use the mechanism.
Thus, the Ministry suggested a refor- mulation of the article in order to create, in the spirit of the con- tribution required in Decree , a new source of money for the sector, based on its own economic dynamic. A proposal was also made for the updating of the Screen Quota Law, which guarantees Brazilian films exhibition in the home mar- ket.
The screen quota is not a way of protecting market share, or rather, of creating legislation to completely bar foreign films from certain areas of the national market. It establishes, in a limited way, a minimum number of days for the exhibition of Brazilian films in the country, so as to guarantee access to a local audience.
This is indispensable, as other countries have proved, if the gen- eral desire is to create conditions for a competitive equality of national cinema in Brazil. Although currentiy in force, the screen- ing quota is not met at the moment, because the State is unable to enforce the law that instates it. As a result, the Ministry of Culture sealed a partnership with the Public Prosecution Service, in , to analyse the specific cases in which the law was breached and decide on necessary courses of action to be taken against the per- petrators.
Moreover, for the legislation to be effective, the Ministry of Culture included a provision, when the laws applying to cinema were being consolidated, that allowed for better monitoring of adherence to the quota law by distributors. It is not just a matter of punishing those that do not comply with the law, but of creat- ing effective ways to reward companies that overshoot the screen- ing quota of Brazilian Cinema with public recognition.
In the past, mechanisms used by the State to regulate the exhibition mar- ket fell under the jurisdiction of the National Cinema Council, that checked the country's existing cinemas and what they showed. With the abrogation of the relevant legislation, the Collor govern- ment assigned to exhibitors, distributors and producers the task of gathering such information, and making it available to the public.
At the end of , for example, no one knew for sure in which cin- emas throughout the country Brazilian films had been shown with success. With the new legislation, companies must supply the State with this information. Each company, independendy, may do this without the need for a special organism. Many companies are already sufficiendy computerized, and the need to comply with a law, in order to avoid fines, would give the State the ability to draw up a plan of action based on the situation of the market, as well as what regulatory measures to take, if necessary, to protect the national industry.
These remedies do not exhaust the alternative ways of dealing with the problems facing the film industry, but they do provide the government with more effective means to make filmmaking a permanent activity in the country. This set of measures and initiatives, although they have not exhausted the problems facing the sector, constitute a point of departure for the introduction of a new model for the relation- ship between film and State in Brazil.
The recommenda- tions of this group, aiming to create an Inter-ministerial Agency for sponsorship and market regulation, will consolidate the achievements of recent years and will hopefully allow cinema to become an industry in Brazil. Senator Francelino Pereira, the referee of the Senate's Cinema Commission, is compiling all the existing laws on cinema in order to prepare a bill for the sector.
State or munici- pal taxes over audio-visual and theatrical works of any kind for five years from the date of the law's promulgation. But Brazilian Cinema has never been a permanent activity and has always gone through cycles such as this. These cycles begin with much euphoria, only to end some time later and almost always suddenly, in the midst of a crisis that is never due to the quality of the films themselves.
In my lifetime alone, I have witnessed or participated in many of these cycles or periods of renaissance. These have included the rise of the Rio de Janeiro-based chanchada musical comedies , the Vera Cruz studios, the Cinema Novo movement, pomochanchada porn comedies , Embrafilme the Brazilian Film Company , the new Sao Paulo-based cinema of the s and so on.
All these cycles have signalled, each in its own way, the definitive establish- ment of a film industry in Brazil. Cinema Novo was knocked for six by the military dictatorship just as films like Macunmma Qoaquim Pedro de Andrade, were confirming its aesthetic achievements, which were by then combined with popular appeal. The New Brazilian Cinema A complex industry The difficulty in establishing film production as a permanent activity in Brazil has been constandy attributed to the fact that cin- ema is a new, therefore unknown industry, characterized by unex- pected factors that are beyond our control.
But cinema has exist- ed for over years in Brazil, and since the first decade of the twentieth century Brazil has produced films, some of which have even been of international significance. The truth is that cinema is not a new industry, but rather one of the most sophisticated and complex of recent times, that demands constant flexibility, imagination and diversity, even in countries where it has firmly taken root.
The difficulties are more extreme in countries where the industry, in spite of its sophistica- tion and complexity, is still impoverished and precarious. This is the case in Brazil. With the exception of the United States of America where only a few very low-budget, independent films are made , no other country in the world has an internal market of cinema theatres capable of maintaining a lucrative film industry and recouping production costs.
In theory, given the size of its population, Brazil should be one of the few countries able to rely on its internal mar- ket alone in order to cover the costs of the industry. However, in spite of its population of million, only about 70 million cinema lickels are sold in Brazil each year, to about 10 million consumers.
This means that only 6 per cent of the Brazilian population goes to the cinema. There are some cin- ema theatres in Brazil, which makes it the country with the second highest ratio of inhabitants to theatres. To gain a better idea of how paltry these figures are you only need to remember that in France, whose population is only about 50 million, million cinema tickets are sold every year, in some theatres.
As far as the USA is concerned, with its population of near million, on average 1. Declining audiences It was not, as is often claimed, the advent of television as a hege- monic popular leisure activity that was responsible for the decline in cinema audiences in Brazil. Generally speaking, virtually every country in the world has experienced a rise in the number of peo- ple going to the cinema compared with thirty years ago, and the The cinema that Brazil deserves figures have remained very stable for the last ten years.
This is even the case in the United States, which is streets ahead in terms of the ratio between the number of inhabitants and the number of television sets, and where, as we all know, the most socially influ- ential television in the world is made. In Brazil the dramatic fall in the size of cinema audiences began in the mids, and became progressively more severe from then on until it reached today's levels.
The decline is particularly evident among the country's lower classes - the cinema theatres that are closing due to falling ticket sales are those situated in small towns in rural Brazil, and in the poor neighbourhoods and outskirts of big cities. The public is no longer going to the cinema as a consequence of the worsening economic recession and its resulting, growing and perverse concentration of income, which excludes the vast majority of Brazilians from today's consumer society.
When you have scarce- ly any money to live on, the first thing to be cut from the household budget is any kind of leisure activity, especially one that can be replaced by something cheaper So the people who have stopped going to the cinema are pre- cisely those who traditionally have always ensured the box-office suc- cess of Brazilian films, during all the previous cycles of the country's film production.
Popular audiences who want to see themselves rep- resented on screen have always been, historically and statistically, the key consumers of Brazilian films. Having been transformed into a typical middle-class leisure activity, the cinematic spectacle has been subsumed into 'shopping centre' culture in Brazil. It is targeted precisely at the section of the population who, fuelled by dreams and fantasies of a hypothetical 'first world', refuse to recognize or take part in the realities of the country.
They equally have difficulty in accepting their Brazilian cultural identity, a pre-requisite for understanding any audio-visual material produced in Brazil. Ancillary markets Throughout the world, as a general rule, only about 25 per cent of the total income from a given film comes from box-office receipts. The other 75 per cent comes from the so-called ancillary markets, the numerous alternative forms of dissemination that we know today, particularly terrestrial and cable television, but also videos, laser discs, DVDs, the increasingly important Internet and the nas- cent digital age.
The New Brazilian Cinema However, in Brazil films are restricted to only 25 per cent of their potential income, given that the ancillary markets are all but nullified by the lack of popular consumption, and Brazilian pro- ducers do not have access to terrestrial or cable television, both lucrative sectors of the audio-visual and advertizing industries. Fabiano Milani — high technical knowledge.
Its extensive office network makes it well suited to handling cross-border transactions, and the firm is acknowledged as one of the best in Brazil for oil and gas-related deals. Its client base extends to include a broad range of corporations and funds operating in the IT, agribusiness, power and transport sectors, among others. In terms of technology and innovation, in , the firm adopted Luminance AI technology, a platform for the legal sector focusing on due diligence and document revision.
Tiago has always followed the processes until the final solution. The firm dates its commitment to corporate social responsibility back to , and more recently — in the context of the Covid crisis — has focused on its All Fronts Combat Campaign through legal information sharing, partnerships with NGOs and internal donation drives. Marcelo Moura left the firm in December In addition to the knowledge and ability to adapt to various needs, they are very accessible.
Trench Rossi Watanabe stands out not only for its technical capacity, but also for its full time dedication and commitment to the high quality of the service offered to the customer. The firm saw some personnel changes during , with the departures of Carlos Lobo in January and Sergio Bronstein in April.
Another relevant feature of the firm is its social responsibility and pro bono programme, Veirano Transforma, launched in , with social impact and diversity and inclusion initiatives considered key criteria in the selection of new projects. Since publication , Surerus has been appointed managing partner effective January , the first woman to hold the position in the firm's year history.
Understands what is important for us as client and points out the right issues. All areas work closely together, for example, to ensure that an acquisition or divestment takes place in the best possible way, without any setbacks. They understand the risk matrix of foreign and multinational investors very well, looking for the best solutions.
The attorneys demonstrate a deep knowledge of the details of the laws, the impact of business clauses, and the importance of each part of the Due Diligence process. In addition, the members of this team interact with clients acting as a single focal point of the office, mobilising other partners in specific areas when necessary and consolidating understandings, facilitating the decision-making of the client. Luiz Eduardo Malta Corradini and Guilherme Bertolini — who was promoted to partner in — are also noted.
Experience in structuring complex transactions which allows us to overcome business impasses. Interpersonal skills of the senior team to conduct conflicting negotiations and difficult clients. Eduardo Boulos Guilherme Bertolini. Guilherme Bertolini — extremely available, kind, ultra committed, knows how to conduct meetings with several stakeholders, multidisciplinary, good synthesis capacity and ease of explaining complex legal issues to a more lay audience.
Huck, Otranto, Camargo Advogados stands out for its vast knowledge of technology and venture capital deals, areas in which the team remained busy during Elsewhere, the firm also maintains a broad practice, equipped to assist domestic and international companies in all phases of their life cycles, providing advice on sales, acquisitions, mergers and day-to-day corporate matters. During the Covid crisis, the team assisted Porto Seguro with a social programme that trains people who have lost their jobs or are struggling economically during the pandemic.
Since publication: the firm endured a significant split in February , with the departure of 24 lawyers to found HRSA; while the firm retains 47 attorneys, Haddad, Robert and Affonso have left the firm. Experienced and balanced. Technically very competent, they take care of our interests.
Another highlight is Diego Falcao. Recently, the firm has been particularly active in significant deals in the technology, telecoms, healthcare, food and beverage, retail and education sectors, where it acts for a large portfolio of clients, many of which have been working with the firm for more than a decade.
With a strong commitment to pro bono work, the firm has had pro bono initiatives since its founding in ; this practice is coordinated by compliance expert Catarina Rattes. The first is that they do get involved in the discussions and defend our interest. The team is concerned with making the deal happen, but always striving to get the best conditions.
The partners are always present and accessible and the staff very qualified. They are accessible, they study hard all situations, they are concerned with explaining all the points to the members, they always strive for the best conditions. I also believe that they have a lot of skill in dealing with everyone involved. The firm has several internal committees, including committees focusing on diversity and social responsibility, and continuing development.
Following its partner promotion round in January , the firm counts 40 partners, of which 18 are women. Excellent team, very available, hands on and flexible to propose solutions. Excellent negotiator and strategist. Mariana Jost has a lot of depth and knowledge of CVM rules and extensive experience in capital market operations.
Quite technical, structured, objective. Rafael Vianello has solid tax knowledge applicable to transnational corporate transactions. Experienced lawyer. A distinguishing feature of the practice is its track record in private equity deals; in this field, the firm counts leading Brazilian and international private equity funds among its clients.
Its varied client base also includes significant names in the energy, healthcare and financial services sectors, among others. Through its strategic alliance with Dentons , the firm has access to an extensive office network that makes it well placed to advise on cross-border transactions. Its association also gives the firm access to NextLaw Labs, a collaborative innovation platform focused on developing and implementing new legal tech.
Associate Jorge Kou left the firm in May With this, we have much less rework throughout our projects. This culture and approach of partnership exists not only in the members but in all the associates who were part of our projects. He manages to adapt and clarify themes and, given this capacity, quickly manages to converge on consensus in his recommendations.
Associate Natalia Brassaloti has been instrumental in the progress of the projects and offers proposals and alternatives, often bringing examples and contexts from other industrie s. Among its diversity initiatives is its participation in Movimento Mulher , which promotes gender equality and women empowerment in the corporate environment. Also unique was the healthy balance they found between wanting to serve their client and their own integrity.
Our relationship became more of a partnership than that of being just a client. Also the way the team worked together, and the competence of the younger associates. The firm quickly established itself as an important player in the Brazilian legal market, with a particularly strong following in the financial services, aviation, food and beverage, technology and energy sectors. However, Felipe Gruber moved in house at Clash in September The team led by Gabriela Claro is young and dedicated to understanding the business itself beyond just the legal side, adding with creative ideas and with rich and vast experience.
She knew how to negotiate with the other party in a respectful and incisive way, getting all the points that were most relevant to us. Her leadership ability is perceived in the small details, the team extremely engaged and aligned with Gabriela in all email exchanges and meetings conducte d.
Highly qualified and with an innovative eye on the law. Innovative legal theses. Respond to the customer quickly and assertively. Instead of boxed products and opinions, I felt that Gabriela and her team dedicated themselves to understanding our pains in depth and suggesting smart solutions. Her team follows the same profile. We were very well attended and we felt unique. It was worth every penny of the money contracted. The whole team is very hands on and always interested in discussing the most varied topics.
Major blue-chip companies operating in the region turn to the team, which has recently been especially active in deals in the healthcare, energy, infrastructure and natural resources industries, acting on both the buy and sell side. Corporate reorganisations, commercial agreements and regulatory matters are also areas of strength for the department.
Senior partner Fernando Azevedo Sette and Luiz Augusto Azevedo Sette , who draws on his former experience as general counsel for Microsoft, jointly lead the team. Gender diversity is another important feature of the firm, which has a high proportion of female partners. Since publication , Mirella Kaufmann was promoted to partner, in January It facilitates communication and alignment with our headquarters.
I recommend Felsberg to all companies that seek quality legal advice, knowledge and efficiency with the agencies! Carolina and Dr. Excellent professionals and great people! Evy Marques stands out for her knowledge in the corporate field as well as for the voracious interest in the technology and innovation market, always being ahead of our demands and bringing a lot of security.
Experience and good practices in business management. Pro activity promoting lectures on the most relevant topics in the market. This flexibility and multiple knowledge adds a lot to talk about when structuring different investments.
Evy Marques is creative, fast, with in-depth knowledge of the sector. Giving not only legal guidance, but giving support to the way the negotiations are going on. It can be seen that she is concerned with helping in the best possible way. The team led by Claudia Maniaci always has a proactive management in the relationship and conducting business. With ' super expertise in the technology sector ', the firm is regularly sought for its expertise in start-ups and venture capital, and can often be found advising on investments and partnerships with promising companies.
Its focus on entrepreneurship is also illustrated through its pro bono support to Endeavor Brazil, the Brazilian branch of Endeavor Global, a non-for-profit organisation that promotes entrepreneurship. The arrival of tax partner Aline Bauermeister , who joined from BT Law in November , provided a further boost to the firm.
Rodrigo Menezes , Juliene Piniano and associate Marcela Rosolen are highlighted for their ' impeccable quality of customer service and in-depth knowledge of the legal and business aspects of the venture capital market '. Pedro Ferreira and associate Gustavo Dalcolmo are also noted.
Impeccable speed and availability. Exceptional quality customer service. They are undoubtedly the leaders in legal advice for venture capital in Brazil, having started their activities in this area long before the other offices in the country. Engagement with innovation hubs, groups of angels and the Brazilian Association of Venture Capital.
With this, they remain not only relevant in the market, but also nurture important connections and contacts for the development of business for the office and its clients. In the venture capital market, the name FM Derraik opens many doors. They have years of experience and performance and with this they pass the customer total security in the conduct of investment processes. Members present and active during the entire length of the projects.
They are distinguished for being extremely accessible, creative in solving problems and deep in the knowledge of their area of expertise. All the situations that we bring have already been experienced by lawyers in previous transactions. Its recent workload includes deals in the energy, investment funds, life sciences, media and technology sectors, among others.
She also leads the firm's pro bono support to the LeVila Project, a digital platform which promotes female financial autonomy and provides a digital environment through which individuals and companies can make direct donations to micro-entrepreneurs. Objectivity is shown, not only in the analysis and production of documents, but above all in the communication with the client and their counterparts. I also highlight the associate Ricardo Mafra.
The ' very skilled and creative team ' at Abe Giovanini Advogados is highlighted for its ' extensive negotiation skills ' and its ' ease in dealing with complex issues and with complex clauses '. Very skilled and creative team, tailor made solutions for any demand. William Nakasone and Marcos Abe: impeccable lawyers, with ability to understand and deliver all contracted demands, simple and creative solutions! Extremely committed to deadlines and negotiations. They are complete as an office so the point of contact with a person who manages the demands helps a lot.
He thinks about the long term. Dr Abe: ability to discern and mitigate risks. Dr Giovanini: strategist and innovator including being the creator of legislation in his area. Dr Taparelli: victorious theses in tax planning. Dr Ricardo Rocha Neto: exceptional negotiator and knowledgeable of the minutiae of legislation. I drew my attention to the diligence in analysing the documentation, as well as the strategic view of the situation. Marcos Abe, who I consider to be a great lawyer, differentiated from the others in the market for his technical capacity and tranquility to conduct complex corporate matters.
Marcos Abe is one of the most brilliant and versatile Brazilian lawyers. His reputation for ethics and strategic vision precedes him. Fernando Zanotti and Daniel Franzin complete the team well. Both technical, hands-on and very efficient. They make the job easy. The firm has a Japan Desk and has an attorney who is very fluent in Japanese. In addition, they are very familiar with the culture and internal system of Japanese companies.
Therefore, the communication is very smooth. Fernando Zanotti Schneider quickly understands all the demands that were presented, explains very easily the paths we would follow. The firm itself also invests in technology, and has recently expanded its use of Lexio, a legal tech platform for documents, contracts and business proposals. Managing partner Luis Felipe Baptista Luz , corporate, contracts and capital markets expert Jessica Bernstein Heumann , and Patricia Nakahara , whose practice encompasses corporate, civil and IP law, are among the key contacts.
Adriana Gomes dos Santos — helped to coordinate the various investors efficiently. Very hands-on commited and hard-working. The firm also works with a number of non-profit organisations, and provides assistance on a pro bono basis to an organisation that supports microentrepreneurs. In conducting the work, the partners actively participate in calls and in the review of documents, which consistently guarantees the highest quality of services.
CGM is known for its attention to detail. The team is very cohesive and really fluent in English. They are able to understand the operation well and to transform, with a lot of technique and precision, the needs pointed out in good legal content, in addition to, by the quality of their professionals, diagnose, point and shield risks of the operation that had not been initially identified.
Camila Cardinale — technical knowledge, flexibility and proactivity. Matheus Sucupira — technical domain, flexibility and didactics. The team has recently been particularly active in the renewable energy and technology sectors, though its broad practice also sees it working on a range of deals beyond these sectors. Associate Joaquim Chacur Mano is a key member of the team. Always analyzing the whole of the operation.
Joaquim Chacur Mano, for the quality of proposing texts and suggestions in the documents. Diogo Ferraz for always being up to date on tax practices, presenting the most up-to-date position on the subject. The lawyers are specialized, experienced and professional. The differential is the personalised service, which is carried out by the partners themselves. Knowledge of the business is a differential.
Big difference is the availability, attention and specialty of the partners. The team also advises companies on corporate restructurings, corporate governance and commercial contracts, in addition to acting for individual clients. Since publication , the firm has expanded in several areas, including with the arrivals of Desire Tamberlini Campiotti Pajola in energy and electricity, and Guilherme Dantas in corporate and competition law.
I am very satisfied with the work done so far. The ' very entrepreneurial and forward-thinking team ' at Gentil Monteiro, Vicentini, Beringhs e Gil Advogados is adept in both transactional and non-transactional corporate matters, with notable expertise in a broad range of sectors including technology, insurance, engineering and agribusiness.
The experience of the team in large Brazilian and international firms is of benefit in cross-border deals and is reflected in the firm's client base of well-known foreign and domestic companies. Fernando Gentil Monteiro , ' exceptional lawyer ' Terence Beringhs and Apoena Joels jointly lead the practice and each receive praise from clients. The firm's formal pro bono policy encourages all partners and associates to participate in pro bono work, where the firm works with a number of education-focused organisations.
Excellent negotiations skills. Terence Beringhs is a great lawyer, very commited with the client needs and very close to in-house lawyers and executives of the client. Creative solutions to complex problems, reliable. Very practical and with an excellent understanding of client needs. Exceptional contribution. The personal dedication of the partners and the differentiated proximity they maintain with clients in the cases I had the opportunity to observe the modus operandi of this firm is noteworthy.
Terence Beringhs has extensive legal and market knowledge. Their legal approach is in the best interest of their client. Terence Beringhs is an exceptional lawyer with a great sense of business development. He and Fernando Gentil have built a solid team of young, entrepreneurial and forward thinking lawyers. The department counts companies operating in the IT, media, transport, construction and infrastructure sectors among its clients.
The firm has also worked with Instituto Pro Bono since November to provide assistance to individuals and non-profit organisations. Highlighted for the ' precision and depth of information provided to the client, cordiality and agility ', Machado Associados is ' always well aligned with the demands of the client '. The firm, which celebrated its 30th anniversary in December , is also a co-founder and member of the Lataxnet network of corporate and tax firms in Latin America, which is of benefit in the firm's cross-border mandates.
Mauro Takahashi Mori is noted for his ' extreme dedication to cases and excellent technical training '; he heads the department, which includes key partners Rochelle Ricci , Mirella da Costa Andreola de Almeida and Caio Fink Fernandes. The profile of the professionals allows the construction of a solid interpersonal relationship. I also highlight the interpersonal skills of these professionals, allowing a very positive relationship.
Mauro Mori is a lawyer who differs from all his competition with his extreme dedication to cases and excellent technical training. The team is always well aligned with the demands of the client and everyone responds well to the need. Caio Fink Fernandes: Knowledge especially in financial contracts. Recently, this has included a number of acquisitions in the healthcare, agribusiness and technology sectors, though its broad expertise also extends beyond these sectors.
The department was strengthened further in August with the arrival of Luciana Felisbino from Martinelli Advogados. With a ' global business vision ', Mattos Engelberg Advogados provides a ' personalised, multidisciplinary, agile and extremely competent service '. Pharmaceutical sector understanding, simplified approach and ethical.
Dra Paula Pires — technical knowledge in tax materials, availability. Another key feature of the team is its strength in renewable energy-sector deals. Always seeks to understand the needs of the client and the market in which it operates before proposing solutions, in order to deliver the best legal solutions for deals. Excellent cost benefit when compared to full service offices. Educated, technical and with a commercial profile, he makes a difference in customer service.
Timely in his comments and with a great sense to negotiate with the counterparties. Deep knowledge of complex legal structures. They did an excellent job, standing out for the qualified level of services and with very personalised service.
He is a highly qualified lawyer, with solid knowledge of the energy sector in Brazil and of the local regulation. He also has a deep knowledge of complex legal structures. The ' agile and highly qualified team ' at Mundie e Advogados provides ' creative solutions to meet the expectations of the client in an efficient manner '. He jointly heads the corporate department with the ' technically impeccable ' Eduardo Zobaran , whose practice spans corporate, finance and civil law, and who coordinates the firm's pro bono work for the IDDD - Institute for the Defense of the Right to Defense.
The team is not only very knowledgeable, but also very committed and responsive. The response time to tend to queries or find solutions as a customer makes the difference. Availability of partners on a continuous basis, always willing to assist the client. Very close relationship that conveys trust to the customer. The three of them are very knowledgeable, business oriented and really committed to finding good solutions for the client. Technically impeccable, easy to explain the complexity of Brazil to the outside world.
His concern for the customer and the business generates an unusual feeling of trust. I can highlight the facility to structure the legal documentation based on abstract concepts term and conditions. Despite the elapsed time, they do not lose the accumulated knowledge. There is no difficulty in accessing professionals.
They are agile, sophisticated and pro-deal, with deep knowledge of law. The contribution of partner Rafael Villac de Carvalho was essential for this positioning of Peixoto Cury. Bernardo Vieira, associate of the team, is also an excellent lawyer.
I see him as a rising star. He has everything to emerge in his career. Jose Ricardo Bastos Martins, Dr. Andre Polinesio are recommended. Corporate restructurings also feature in the team's workload. In a significant internal development, corporate and tax law expert Marina Meirelles Sobreira Krepel was promoted to partner in June The well-established team has a particularly strong following in the technology and pharmaceutical sectors, and continues to expand its already extensive client base with new clients in these and other industries.
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